Alfred Lucas's notes on conservation
of objects from the tomb of Tutankhamun

A. Lucas, 10/6/43: Notes on work done on some of the objects from the tomb of Tutankhamun.
Meant for private use and reference only.
In addition, formal notes were made by me on many of the Index Cards
giving treatment of objects.

The importance of these notes is now such that we hope that Lucas would forgive us for making them public - Jaromir Malek.

Concept & Direction: Jaromir Malek
Scanning: Kent Rawlinson, Jenni Navratil
Transcription and editing: Lindsay Allen and Jaromir Malek
Coordination: Elizabeth Fleming

Seasons 1926-7 and 1927-8

TAA i.2.12a.5.1


Coffin No 253

Cleaned with damp sponge after brushing off superficial dust: then cleaned with ammonia and again with water.
Repaired and consolidated with paraffin wax.

Inside a considerable amount of brown, fluffy material looking like dried fungus growth.

The gold at the bottom, outside, was stained a dark purple (plum) colour: the stain was patchy and not uniform, with here and there small areas unstained: the edges of the stained area were almost straight lines. There was not any corresponding stain inside, nor on the bier (gesso gilt covering a wooden frame) on which the coffin has rested.
On the outside were two small similarly-stained areas near the top edge - these were very dark coloured and each was round a nail hole (the nails were silver with gold heads).
Inside these were a few patches of stain, but not darkly coloured.

HC used at my suggestion a plumber's blast lamp (benzine Benzine dangerous should be kerosene) to melt off the surplus wax: the result was very satisfactory. (Such a method could not of course be employed with varnished surfaces)

TAA i.2.12a.5.2


No 267

(a) Pectoral (In form of Pylon)

(b) Scarab, winged (in form of Cartouche)


(a) Garment of King is silver. This was tarnished (black) and the tarnish was not removed either by KCN or by NH4OH: the silver inlay however was loose + was taken out + heated in flame of spirit lamp, when the tarnish disappeared: a little blackening occurred but this was removed with NH4OH.
The white crown on one of the figures which was also silver + tarnished came fairly clean with NH4OH.
Inlay is glass + calcite with the red cement under.
The gold had a purple tarnish not removable by KCN or NH4OH. Impossible to heat

(b) Gold had same purple tarnish as (a). Impossible to remove. Inlay Lapis (scarab): green felspar, glass + calcite

(a) (86/26) Inlay is apparently cemented in with resin, as the cementing material is very resinous in appearance, soluble in acetone and of a dark reddish-brown colour.

22/10/27 Letters (a) + (b) not understood Sup 7

TAA i.2.12a.5.2 verso

261 Linen Cover - (a shirt)

Spotted with holes, some small + irregular + some large. In a few cases holes surrounded by a dark zone.
Spots + patches of brown ((a) Very light-yellowish brown (b) Very dark brown
Generally in good condition
Distribution of spots + holes suggestive of fungus. No certain fungus discernible, but some of spots highly suggestive.

275 D Linen
Drapery for figure.
Much darkened at top
Lighter coloured at bottom
A few holes.
Covered with large patches of fungus growth similar to that on most of the objects in the chamber. Fungus chiefly at bottom - very little at top
275B Linen
Very slight fungus in places: holes in places
275C Linen
Similar to B. Much darkened about waist - rest slightly discoloured
275 G Linen
Similar to B. Possibly slight fungus but not on much discoloured parts
280 A Linen
Holes: in fairly good condition: no very dark patches.
Fungus not certain.
281 C
As for 280 A
283 C As for 280 A + 281 C. Probably a little fungus (Much fungus on object)

264 Some dark patches: holes: probably fungus

TAA i.2.12a.5.3


Anubis No 261


Amorphous, brown, light-weight powder on nose and other parts.
This similar in appearance to what has frequently been found on the objects (inside outermost coffin, etc., etc. on under side of bier 253A)

Under microscope: apparently largely organic + consists of branched tube-like bodies with some semi-transparent plates.

On heating glows + leaves a white ash

Insoluble in alcohol.

Largely insoluble in ether, but a very minute amount of what looks + feels like fatty material extracted which is just sufficient to give a slight translucent spot on paper. Checked with blank experiment

Does not mix with water.

Dried fungus growth.

261 On top edges of shrine + on one pole many holes made by insects.
Inside much fungus.

Seal. Slight eff. with HCl: softens + dissintegrated in water
Separated finer from coarser material. Both largely crystalline (microscope). Ordinary Nile mud

TAA i.2.12a.5.4


Bier 253A

Repaired + consolidated with paraffin wax

Underneath covered with black varnish on gesso. This has run in places + formed small stalactites.

On washing black with water + sponge before applying wax noticed strong smell of glue + water frothed.

On black much dried fungus as on No 261.

TAA i.2.12a.5.5


Fabric: Treatment of

(a) Sprayed with 5% Glycerine solution.

(b) Sprayed with 2½% gum Arabic solution


(a) Remains pliable but damp for some time

(b) Becomes stiff on drying but can be spread before quite dry.

Papyrus Experiments with -

A. Duroprene.
B. Celluloid in Amyl Acetate
C Paraffin wax

All good: none glazed: (a) most pliable -

TAA i.2.12a.5.6


Feathers. Treatment of (Spraying)

(a) Glycerine 5 %
(b) Gum Arabic solution 2½%
(c) Celluloid in amyl acetate: about 1%
(d) Duroprene in xylol: about ¼ original strength
(e) Collodion (officinal)
(f) - do - with equal vol. of mixed alcohol + ether
(g) Mastic in alcohol 5 %
(h) Cellulose acetate in acetone ? about 1%

(a) Useless: does not dry
(b) Useless: fastens all parts together + to support.
(e) Useless: - ditto -
(f) Useless: - ditto - though slightly better than (e)
(g) Useless: - Ditto -
(h) Not very satisfactory: very brittle.

(f) + (h) Repeated experiments. Same results

(c) Satisfactory
(d) - do - : rather more pliable than (c) + hence better.

Feather Fan
Treated by H.C. with Duroprene

TAA i.2.12a.5.7


Jewellery from Ivory Box No 267

A Pectoral.
Gold + natural stones.
Stones: -
Lapis lazuli. Turquoise (mostly greenish + poor quality). Green Felspar; Carnelian and two small pieces of Calcite.

Cleaned with warm water and ammonia.

B Counterpoise of Pectoral Gold.
A silver lunar disc was very dark-coloured; this due to its being covered with adherent particles of a black material - these very small on body of disc but larger at edges. These mostly fairly strongly adherent, but some can be rubbed off; the black stains the fingers and is sulphid of silver
it is soluble in KCN and insoluble in ammonia
See also D
Lapis lazuli, calcite.
Glass Red, blue, green

Cleaned with warm water, + KCN

C Lid of small gold openwork inlaid box.
Has been lined with linen of which portions remain.
Bent + several pieces of inlay missing
Inlay is glass (Red, Light Blue, Dark Blue Black, and White)

Cleaned with warm water, ammonia + KCN

TAA i.2.12a.5.7 verso

D (Continued)
Disks on small uraei also black.
Gold badly stained.
(Small blue bead in 2 cases attached to smaller pendants <>
Round edges of carnelian inlay (large pieces set in gold) a white efflorescent material. Sol. in water: no pp with NaCl2, with AgNO3 a brick red pp sol. in HNO3. (See also 261 N. + O)
Gold, Silver
Natural Stones (Turquoise Lapis Calcite - Carnelian, Chalcedony obsidian for pupil of eye. (Yellow - Translucent - Scarab)
Glass. Red. Blue. Green, Black and White.

Cleaned with warm water + KCN.

TAA i.2.12a.5.8


K Pectoral

Gold: Lapis lazuli, Carnelian, Calcite and Glass (Red, Blue + Green)

Cleaned with warm water + ammonia + KCN.

O Pectoral (Bird) (Tassel + cord treated with Duroprene)

Gold, Lapis lazuli, Carnelian + ? Obsidian for eyes.

Cleaned with warm water + ammonia + KCN

S Pectoral (Bird)

Gold, Lapis lazuli, Glass (Red, Blue) Carnelian

Crown on bird is electrum

Cleaned with warm water + ammonia + the crown with strong ammonia + with KCN.

D Pectoral (88/26)

Lunar Disc covered with a thick very black deposit, some of which brushes off readily + some is adherent. A larger quantity available for testing than in case of B.
HNO3 Soluble on boiling leaving a little sulphur
HCl Decomposed, giving off HS. On diluting gives white curdy pp. insoluble in boiling water.
NaOH Insoluble
NH4OH Insoluble
KCN Soluble
Neither the HNO3 nor the HCl soln. gives any blue (Cu) on neutralizing with ammonia

TAA i.2.12a.5.9


Malachite (89/26)

Found piece of greenish stone on floor - has been part of an object, shaped like a bell <>
Manifestly a copper mineral from appearance. Slight eff. with cold HCl + brisk eff. when heated.
Soln. is greenish + gives blue colour when neutralized by ammonia.
HCl soln. gives blue copper flame

Is malachite

267 F Beeswax
Small model of bird.
Almost white with slight yellowish tint.
Hard: surface glazed in a few places.
Melts + burns with smoky flame - some ash.
Almost entirely sol. in CHCl3 - sticky when almost dry
On evaporation of CHCl3 residue is yellow (light)
Insol. in benzine
Brushed with soft brush.
Brushed over with CHCl3 - original colour of wax restored

261 G

Similar to 267F. Treated with CHCl3

TAA i.2.12a.5.9 verso

265 A. B. C

Alabaster vases
Each in 2 pieces - pedestal with saucer on top
Two (A + C) with similar saucer as cover
Luted together (i.e) pedestal + saucer + also cover with beeswax
Cleaned with soap + water + rubbed over with kerosene
B Empty - no cover

Material is either
(a) NaCl with Na2SO4 as impurity + trace of natron
or (b) Ostensibly natron but as (a)

Mixture will not burn as a whole - pieces of resin light but soon go out. Smell like varnish.
Evidence therefore against use as Incense though it may contain incense

See BK 6/43

TAA i.2.12a.5.10


265A (Contents of) (90/26)

Mass of small crystals - white with slight brownish tint (Colour due to fact that cover partly off - material underneath white)
Practically all sol. in water
Soln strongly alkaline to pherolphthalein.
Effervesces strongly with acid.
Contains small amount Cl + also sulphate
Pp with AgNO3 sol. in HNO3
Is good quality Natron

265C (Contents of) (90/26)

Similar to A but practically white (Cover firmly on). Is Natron
Contains larger proportion of Cl + SO3 than 265A

261H (91/26)
Two small alabaster cups (beakers) - one inverted on the other. In bottom one but projecting (conically) into the top one + all on one side there was a mass of very light brown material with darker brown top edge.
Material consists of (a) small tears (b) small rods (2 to 5 mms long + 0.5 mm diam) + (c) fine powder.
Partly sol. in water. Sol. contains much Cl + fair SO3
Partly sol in alcohol (yellowish soln)
No alkalinity to P.phthalein (? too much NaCl to show)
Brown material burns vigorously + leaves carbonaceous residue.
The soluble in alcohol is resin.
The tears + rods picked out, treated with alcohol (resin dissolved) + then with water. Soluble probably gum - is sticky when damp.
Two other samples gave merest trace alkalinity with phenolphthalein
Query Whether any combination between alkali (natron) + gum-resin. - Unlikely.

TAA i.2.11


261J Pectoral with Scarab (Linen on Back)
Green felspar (scarab): carnelian
Glass - blue (light + dark), green, red
Cleaned with warm water + ammonia.

261P (3) Pectoral (Linen on back)
Glass (blue (light + dark) red)
(Some of dark blue glass badly deteriorated
Cleaned with ammonia, KCN + warm water

261M Very large Pectoral - very large Scarab missing
Scarab found separately is dull, dark, speckled olive-green stone
(Linen on back)

Glass (blue-light + dark-red)

Cleaned with ammonia + warm water

Ded Amulet.

Blue faience decorated with gold leaf (or thin foil)

Cleaned faience with warm water + gold with ammonia

TAA i.2.12a.5.11 verso

Efflorescence (92/26)

On 261N + 261O + 261I

White eff. in places - silky spirals

N Sol. in water
AgNO3 Brick red pp sol. in HNO3 (See 267D)
Very slight alkalinity to phenolphthalein
No SO3

O Similar to N but SO3 (slight)

N (Further sample)
Alkalinity (slight)
SO3 fair? from faience
Yellowish pp with AgNO3 sol in HN3

TAA i.2.12a.5.12


261I Pectoral (Backed with Linen)

Gold - Quality poor - much stained
Carnelian (Possibly Imitation - Quartz + red cement)
Glass: Blue-light + dark - Red, Green
Dark blue glass much decayed

Cleaned with warm water + ammonia

261N Pectoral (large scarab) Backed with Linen

Carnelian (as for 261I) Hard grayish stone (glazed)
Originally dark blue glaze, now light bluish-grey. Film of hard material on surface which could be removed by scratching with penknife (H.C. says "paste" not faience)
Glass Blue-light + dark - Red, Green
One piece of light blue glass (hand of the figure) in powder

Cleaned with warm water + ammonia

261O Pectoral Linen backed

Gold, Silver
Carnelian (As for I + N - stone is practically colourless, translucent + will not scratch with a knife)
Glass Blue - light + dark - much of dark blue decayed

Cleaned with warm water + ammonia

TAA i.2.12a.5.13


261 P O Pectoral
Carnelian (As for I, K + O)
Glass Blue - light + dark

Cleaned with warm water + ammonia

261 P(2) Pectoral

Carnelian (? Imitation)
Glass Blue - light + dark - Red

Cleaned with warm water + ammonia

261L Scarab Buckle

Beads - Lapis, Turquoise (1) Carnelian, Opaque red (jasper) Gold
Lapis (Scarab + Inlay)
Green felspar

Cleaned with warm water + ammonia

261 F8 (73/26)
Lumps of red translucent resin
Resinous appearance + fracture
Entirely soluble in alcohol
Insoluble in benzine

TAA i.2.12a.5.13 verso

267P (Materials written up by H.C.)

Breast ornament (Winged Scarab)

Lapis lazuli
Green felspar

267Q Pectoral (Materials written up by H.C.)

Gold not very pure, much darkened
Silver good
Quartz (semi-translucent backed with pigment to imitate carnelian)
Calcite (semi-translucent backed with pigment)
Glass Red, Green, Blue (light + Dark) Black

TAA i.2.12a.5.14


Small piece of some object of Jewellery
Glass - Blue (Light + Dark)
Cleaned with warm water + ammonia

261 F5 Wooden Shawabti figure (94/26)
Has been repaired (much) with a kind of stopping (Coloured brown to match wood)
This largely sol. in HCl with effervescence.
Impossible to say what the adhesive is as sample available too small
Whiting + ? Glue.

267 M (1) Pectoral
Lapis, Turquoise, Carnelian, Obsidian (Eye)
Glass - Light blue. Cleaned with warm water + ammonia

267 M (2) Beads (large)
16 Lapis
16 Red resin
Cleaned with warm water.

267 N Pectoral
Gold Quality poor
Electrum - Lunar disk
Silver - Inlay on pendants
Green Felspar
? Obsidian - pupils of eyes
Glass - Blue - light + dark - Black + White, White, Green
Cleaned with water, ammonia + potassium cyanide.

TAA i.2.12a.5.15


267 h Pectoral + collar
Lapis Turquoise (some green, only a good blue in a few small places
No glass
Calcite (much decayed)
Glass - Blue - Light + Dark - Green, Brown (not red)

275A No Linen
Wooden figure varnished black.
Treated (sprayed) with acetone - cleaned eyes with damp brush.
Some little fungus - especially on eyes.
Eyes - covered with translucent material - White (eyeball) + black (pupil) underneath.

283C Hawk Standard
Beak of hawk covered with black material like sulphide of silver - Beak is silver
On handle of flail (stuck in back) a little black fluffy efflorescence through the gold - is copper sulphide

283 C (Continued)
Cleaned (Gesso gilt with NH3 (This removed fungus admirably) + water + beak with KCN
Eyes Obsidian (?) (surrounded by narrow strip of metal: copper (Eyelids) and all surrounded by dark blue glass with red glass insertions.

TAA i.2.12a.5.15 verso

Figures 304 A + B

Wood - gesso-gilt: base varnished black
A. Eyes, eyebrows, face-markings + beak painted black
B Eyes, eyebrows, eyelids, painted black

TAA i.2.12a.5.16


264 Cow's Head

Wood gesso gilt except lower part of neck which was varnished black.
Horns - wooden core, Cu (or bronze) covered + all varnished black.
Eyes - CaCO3 (crystalline) with obsidian pupil (?)
Round eyes + eyebrows - black glass.
Cleaned with warm water.

282A. Figure Mummy
Gesso gilt on wood: base varnished black
Beard: Ebony
Eyes: Cryst. CaCO3 (ball): obsidian (pupil)?
Eyebrows: Glass.
Cleaned water + NH3

283A Snake
Wood gesso-gilt: base varnished black
Eyes: Transl. Quartz - pupil possibly paint underneath.
Eyelids: Cu (or bronze) On one some sulphide
Cleaned: Water + NH3

283B Hawk
Like 283C But superior work + materials.
Gold not so good: beak Cu (or bronze): Covered with sulphide
Cleaned: water + NH3

289A + B
Figures from Leopards.
Wood gesso gilt: base black varnished
Staff + flail - Cu (or bronze) gilt.
Eyes: CaCO3 + Obsidian (?)
Eyebrows: Glass
Eyelids: Glass
Cleaned: Water + NH3

TAA i.2.12a.5.17


Black Shrine-like Boxes 280. 281. 282. 275

Cleaned with damp sponge: sprayed with acetone

269 Lid

Ebony frame; gesso gilt panel; ebony + ivory figures in relief. Ivory stained red + black
Cleaned with warm water + ammonia except ivory which was cleaned with benzine.

269B Mirror Case

Wood covered with gesso + outside with embossed gold foil + inside with plain silver foil. Lid inlaid with carnelian, calcite, faience or glass (scarab), glass-blue (light + dark) + transparent quartz
Scarab - most of colour gone, now bluish-grey
Knobs (small) for fastening are silver.
Cleaned: KCN, NH3 + water

269 H Heq

Probably metal core (Cu or bronze): covered with gold foil + dark blue glass alternately. Gold has been burnished in position + tiny particles carried over on to glass, suggesting the yellow specks of pyrites on Lapis

269 D Heq

Like 269H but glass black
Gold particles carried on to glass during burnishing

TAA i.2.12a.5.18



Bracelet with Scarab
Lapis, Turquoise, Carnelian, Quartz (yellow but probably some of yellow due to colour underneath
Glass Nil

269 Box
(H.C. says on card stopping whiting + glue)

Red wood - very marked grain at one end
Some ebony
Inscription in blue paint all round. This is frit - under microscope crystalline (blue, yellowish + colourless)
+ typical frit.

269E Flail
Gold + glass (dark blue, faded) Core probably metal (Cu or bronze)
Pendants - wood, gold covered + gold (small pendants)
Cones: - gold, carnelian, glass (dark blue, faded and green)
Beads - gold, carnelian glass (dark blue + green)
Cleaned with warm water + ammonia

269F Flail
Like 269E except no short gold pendants, no beads + no carnelian, only gold + glass (dark blue, faded)
Treatment as for 269E

TAA i.2.12a.5.18 verso

1½ mm = 0.059 inch = app 1/16"

2 mm = 0.079 inch = app 1/12 "

1 cm = 0.3937 inch 1 mm = 0.03937 inch


TAA i.2.12a.5.19


271E (2) Palette with Brushes + Colour

Palette: Wood covered with gold foil
Brushes: 4 Reeds - two could not easily be removed: 2 removed and measured:
Length (a) 21 cms (b) 16cms
Diam (of 4) 1½ to 2 mms. Two with visible end bevelled: 2 with visible end straight: (one of them was cut straight both ends)
Colour: Black - Is carbon
Red - Is oxide of iron.

Cleaned gold with ammonia + water

271B Palette with Brushes + Colour

Palette. Ivory with thin gold foil at end.
Brushes. 7 Reeds. Removed for measurements.
Diam in all cases 1½ mms
Length: 6 at 23 cms: 1 at 17 cms
Both ends cut straight
Colour Black Is carbon
Red Is oxide of iron.
Cleaned ivory with benzine + alcohol + gold with ammonia

271 G. Papyrus Burnisher (?)
Under gold foil is strip of linen coated with adhesive ? glue
Ivory with gold foil at end.
Small parts of ivory coloured red (put on thickly + irregularly + is an applied colour more than a stain but has stained also)
Incised parts + hieroglyphs filled with blue pigment.

Cleaned ivory with alcohol + gold with ammonia

TAA i.2.12a.5.20



Shallow bowl: places eaten by insects

Ivory stained red + containing fine reddish powder (Possibly fungus Is organic + cellular)
Insol. in organic solvents: gives yellowish colour with water: cannot be made to stain wood

Cleaned with alcohol (carefully so as not to remove colour)

271 C + D Mirror Case

Wood covered with thin gold foil - much discoloured (plum colour) that cannot be removed.
C. Eyebrow, eyelids + beard of figure are glass (dark blue now faded in part)
Eye: Cryst. CaCO3 (eyeballs) + obsidian ? (pupil)
Fastens at back = silver
Cleaned with water + NH3
"Reeds of Years" = Cu (or bronze) partly gilt
Cartouches: Faience with letters cut out of linen covered with thin gold leaf.
Cleaned as for C

262 Palette
Ivory - cleaned with alcohol
No Pens
Colours:- White, yellow, red, ? green, ? blue missing, black.
White = CaSo4 (probably) (Sple too small for confirmation)
Yellow = Cu2S3 (--Do-)
Red = Fe2O3
? Green Not available
? Blue Missing
Black = Carbon

TAA i.2.12a.5.20 verso

Cracked + falling surface readily consolidated with alcohol but white film left on surface - may be removed by careful rubbing with cloth damped in CHCl3

TAA i.2.12a.5.21


271 H

Faience + gold: surface of faience much deteriorated + top layer mostly chipped off.
Cleaned with water + NH3

271 E (1) Reed Case

Wood covered with gold foil + ivory end at bottom + ivory knobs + inlay to wooden core.
Ivory stained red.
Inlay: Carnelian, ? obsidian or black glass, glass (light + dark blue, red + green

269A (1) Ear-rings
Ends of studs - quartz with colours underneath
Bird's heads - fairly clear blue glass - cemented in place with resin
Inlay Calcite (corroded), glass, blue (light + dark) surface of dark blue corroded, red, white.
Cleaned with water + ammonia -

269A (2) Ear-rings
Gold - pink with yellow granules - the outside of the inner fastening (<> pink) was pink.
Large beads of dark red resin - surface much cracked
Glass Dark blue black by reflected light - very corroded + just recognizable
Beads - Gold + dark blue glass
Consolidated Resin with alcohol: Imp. to clean gold or colour would have been destroyed, but in good state

TAA i.2.12a.5.21 verso

269A (4)
Large Scarab of hard, green stone not identified

TAA i.2.12a.5.22


269A (3)
Quartz - colour underneath
Glass, dark blue, light blue
Beads:- Gold, carnelian, Glass (Dark blue + green)

Cleaned with warm water + ammonia

269A (6) Ear Studs
Glass (Blue - light + dark)

269A (5) Earrings
Glass (Dark blue + green)

269K Pectoral with bead band
Electrum (lunar disk)
Lapis lazuli
Green felspar
Calcite (some with colour underneath)
Glass - green + white Beads Resin (v. dark red black by reflected light) barrel + round
Gold: Carnelian
Green felspar
Gold beads + spacers heated and treated with HNO3
Resin treated with alcohol

TAA i.2.12a.5.23


269K Small Pendants
Gold + dark blue glass with dark blue glass bells
Glass somewhat faded

Figures Wood covered with gesso gilt: base varnished black.

Hawk Headed
Eyes, obsidian(?)
Eyelids, copper or bronze
Round Eyes, Dark blue + red glass
Beak, copper or bronze

One figure carrying another
Eyes: cryst. limestone (eyeball) + obsidian (pupil) (?)

Eyes: as for 296A
Eyelids: copper or bronze (covered with fluffy black deposit) ? sulphide.
Eyebrows: glass, black

Skull cap: Faience, dark blue glass
Eyes: as for 296A
Eyelids + Eyebrows: Glass - dark blue
Beard: Copper or bronze
Staff: ---do--- gold inlaid

269M Bracelet
Scarab: amethyst
Inlay: Turquoise, Lapis + carnelian
Beads: Gold, turquoise, Lapis + carnelian + red jasper (small)

TAA i.2.12a.5.24



On outside of two of the gesso-gilt figures were globules + tears of dark red resin (entirely soluble in alcohol)

267E Pectoral
Lapis lazuli
? Faience (+ snakes' heads) (or glass)
Cryst. CaCO3 (white of eye)
Obsidian ? (pupil of eye)
Glass:- Light blue + green.

Beads:- Gold: glass

267 G + H. Pectoral + Straps

Green felspar
Beads: Glass (dark blue + green): carnelian: gold

267J Pectoral

Gold: Calcite: Carnelian: Glass (Blue - light + dark): green)
Pendants:- Glass (now grey): Carnelian
Beads:- Gold, Carnelian, glass (dark blue, red, green), glass (now grey)

TAA i.2.12a.5.25


Pectoral 269I J

Calcite (much deteriorated)
Glass - green, blue (light + dark) red
Beads Electrum + glass (dark blue): glass (blue + red)

269P Part of an Object

Ovoids (Large: gold mounted)
1 Lapis
1 Green felspar
2 Serpentine (green)
1 " (brown)

Beads Electrum + glass (blue)

269G Bracelet

Scarab + one piece of green glass
(Lapis lazuli)
Beads Electrum, calcite, red jasper, glass (green + blue)

269O Necklace

Thin, disc beads - faience. (very definite core of silica)
Glaze, once blue, now deteriorated, grey + blackish

TAA i.2.12a.5.26


Materials Employed

Gold (yellow + red) and its alloy Electrum
Copper or Bronze (Cores of Heq + flagella, Beaks, Eyelids, Staffs, Flagella on small figures)
Natural Stones
Felspar (green)
Lapis lazuli
Jasper, red (small beads)
Limestone, crystalline amulets (white of eyes)
Obsidian (Eyes of birds: pupils of eyes)
Serpentine (green + brown)

Not identified
Hard, dark olive green stones (Scarab)
Hard, light greyish stone (glazed artificially) (Scarab)

Black + white
Brown (one example)
Blue (light + dark)

Faience (dark blue)
Ring, scarab, disc beads, ? heads of snakes, Ded amulet (continued)

TAA i.2.12a.5.27


Materials Employed (Contd.)







Colours on Palettes

TAA i.2.12a.5.28


Store Room

Fungus on all 4 walls.
Very little fungus on ceiling except where there are two veins, one large right across and one smaller, only part way across + part way down wall.

Distribution of Fungus
The amount of fungus is greatest on the walls of the Burial Chamber (which is the only one painted) presumably on account of the food material in the paint vehicle. The walls are completely covered with a network of brown spots of various sizes.
In the Store Chamber the fungus is chiefly in the form of streaks and large patches, though there are spots.

Store Chamber
There is a wide vein of calcite across the ceiling and down the N + S walls. This is largely coloured brown with fungus.
There is also a narrow vein of flint part way across the ceiling and down the E wall - not much fungus on flint.

Several patches of plaster occur where some of the larger irregularities of the walls have been smoothed over - this plaster is largely brownish + apparently of a clayey nature through patches near the door are grey + probably gypsum. The former is everywhere coated with a thin layer of whitish plaster, which on the surface has turned pink; the latter is largely uncoated but where coated the coating is also pink.

TAA i.2.12a.5.29



Opened Laboratory 24/9/27 Temp. 80.7 (Closed since April)

(Temp. when opened 7/10/26 = 81.7)

Temp. when opened 3/10/28 = 82.7

TAA i.2.12a.5.30


Anubis Shrine 261

Consolidated by means of paraffin wax under blisters etc
Painted with hot wax
Removed excess wax by blasting.

Model Granary 277

Grain is very dark-coloured - some practically black

Osiride Figure (Germinating Osiris) 288

Grain planted in clean, white, quartz sand.

Top layer of germinated grain (i.e. the young shoots) are largely black and charred-looking as also is the layer of bandages in contact with this.


Linen bandages light brown to very dark brown, almost black
One (very finely-woven) layer between other layers, which are much less dark, is practically black
Much of this linen tinder, but none in condition of black powder.

No adhesive.

TAA i.2.12a.5.30 verso

284 (125/27)
Blue pigment See No 307 Is frit
Canary-yellow pigment See No 314. Is As2S3

273 (127/27)
Blue pigment. See No 307. Is frit.

TAA i.2.12a.5.31


Model Boats

Colours:- White, blue, green, canary-yellow, brownish-yellow, black and red.
Much disfigured by fungus growths (now dead + dry).
These chiefly on the brownish-yellow (most) and white (less). None on canary yellow and very little on green, blue, red and black. Paint stained under fungus. This not removable.
No varnish
Paint readily removed when damp (i.e. a water paint)
String on steering paddles consolidated with duroprene.
Paint consolidated with celluloid solution (and celluloid when treating paint).
Brushed with dry brush.
Cleaned with benzine + soft brush. (Tried alcohol, alchohol + ammonia and ammonia - not effective)

Waxed by H.C.

Absence of fungus on canary-yellow
Most fungus on brownish yellow + white.
Staining under fungus
Treatment: String + Colours
As for 284

TAA i.2.12a.5.31 verso

Canary-yellow pigment (128/27)
See No 314. Is As2S3

314 (129/27)
Canary-yellow pigment.
Like orpiment: insol. in HCl: sol. in N2OH: is As2S3

Blue pigment. (130/27) See No 307. Is frit.
Canary-yellow pigment. (131/27) See No 314. Is As2S3
White pigment (132/27) See No 306. Essentially CaCO3

TAA i.2.12a.5.32


276 (With rigging)

Fungus or its incidence
As for 284

Some of wood gilt (discoloured reddish purple which will not clean) Cleaned as far as possible with ammonia

Small beetles (dead) and stains probably from beetles' excrement.

As for 284.

Fungus: much; in one section (side of cabin) fungus on canary-yellow, in other sections chiefly on brownish-yellow and white.

Fungus + its incidence
As for 284

Top of cabin loose; also 3 boards where paddles are situated. These stuck with Necol.
Very much fungus on white: none on canary-yellow

Fungus + its incidence
As for 284
Repaired with Necol

TAA i.2.12a.5.32 verso

White pigment. (133/27)
Much effervescence with HCl, all soluble: solution contains a little sulphate.

Green pigment (134/27)
See No 307. Not determined

(135/27) Blue pigment. Looks like fat: insol. in HCl: microscopical appearance of frit.
(136/27) Green pigment. Soluble in HCl; not like fat in appearance; no blue on adding NH3 to HCl sol - possibly because too small an amount of material.

TAA i.2.12a.5.33


Fungus + its incidence
As for 284

Cabin in bad condition. Repaired with Necol

Colours - as previously, except that no brownish-yellow + no black
Much fungus, chiefly on white and green
Some of paint directly on wood, some on thin plaster
Canary-yellow in this + in some at least of previous cases seems to be over white.
In bad condition: repaired with Necol.
Treatment (string + paint) as in previous cases.

Colours as for 308
Much fungus on white, green + blue - none on red but some on canary-yellow.
In bad condition.
No string
Treatment (paint) as previously

307 + 311 Alike
Gilt Much fungus (waxed by HC)
White Much fungus
Blue Much fungus
Green Much fungus
Red Practically no fungus
Canary-yellow -do-
Cleaned gold with ammonia.
Treatment (string + paint) as previously.

TAA i.2.12a.5.33 verso

334 (Rigging)
White (Tested = CaCO3, no SO3) (137/27)
Canary-Yellow (Very small amount)

Some fungus
Much adherent decayed leather.
Cleaned with benzine
Treated with celluloid solution.
Rigging. Part treated with celluloid + part (broken off) with Duroprene
Sail (in pieces) streated with duroprene.

321 As above
But also gilt + much more canary-yellow
Repaired with celluloid cement.
Treated as above
Rigging + Sail. Treated with duroprene.

336 (Rigging)
Painted and in parts gesso-gilt
Colours of pigment as before.
Cleaned as before
Treated sail with 2 coats of duroprene
Treated rigging with 2 coats celluloid solution
Treated paint with celluloid

TAA i.2.12a.5.34


White, blue, green, canary-yellow, brownish-yellow, red
very much fungus, especially on blue, so much so that it appeared at first to be red, the fungus being of a brick-red colour. Much fungus also on green + white.
Treatment as previously

285 + 286 Alike.
Much fungus

Cleaned gold with ammonia (Waxed by HC)
Cleaned paint with benzine + consolidated with celluloid solution.
Many dead beetles (small) + several spiders.

331 and 331A
331A Cenotaph.
2 Cu or bronze hoes
1 -do- yoke
2 -do- baskets
Dark, hard, red wood with pronounced grain
Some of the decoration in black paint
Imperfections in wood made up with stopping
Brushed with soft brush (even this tended to remove paint)
Cleaned with benzine + soft brush.
Treated with 1% cellulose acetate in acetone. This darkened the wood slightly. Probably due to rapid evaporation of acetone white spots + streaks + glazed patches formed. These removed with acetone (Dr A Scott's suggestion to use cell. acet in acetone)
331 Box. Dark red wood: varnished black. Cleaned with damp sponge + fixed varnish by spraying with acetone.

TAA i.2.12a.5.35


Small Coffin 320 (Anthropoid) Outer

Gilt + varnished black over gesso.
Necklace coloured (painted) blue, green + yellow.
In very bad condition.
Brushed with soft brush.
Cleaned paint with benzine.
Cleaned gilt with NH3 + black with water.
Treated with celluloid in acetone (acetone chosen as solvent because it was satisfactory for the varnish).

Inner. Gilt (ant[h]ropoid)
Cleaned with NH3: treated with celluloid.

This inner coffin was sealed up inside the outer one by black varnish, which had to be cut through with a hot knife blade, yet there was a little fungus about the upper part of the body of the figure on the inner coffin: the gilt however was very yellow + untarnished. A linen bandage was discoloured - light brown in parts, dark brown in parts.
Inside the "Inner" coffin was a small wooden coffin and inside this coated + stuck by black "unguent" was a still smaller wooden coffin in which also stuck by the unguent was a lock of hair
Both the innermost coffin + the hair were loosened and rendered removable by pyridine - with which the innermost coffin was also cleaned (H.C.)

TAA i.2.12a.5.35 verso

Small Mummy (? Foetus) - the larger of the two
317/B2 Linen from Coffins
A good deal of white efflorescence in places

(a) Acetone.
Solution slightly brown: on evaporation leaves a very slight fatty residue which is acid to phenolphthalein and gives a permanent greasy stain on paper. Fragrant smell (see below) Much of white efflorescence left undissolved (This gives test for Cl as below)
(b) Water
Solution colourless.
(1) Gives a pp with AgNO3 partly sol. in HNO3
Repeated twice same results - in one case fair amount of pp left = Cl Repeated fair Cl
(2) Not alkaline to phenolphthalein.
(3) No SO3

(c) Benzine
Solution colourless: on evaporation leaves a very slight fatty residue which is acid to phenolphthalein + gives a permanent greasy stain on paper. Fragrant smell suggestive of pine.
317B2 (Very small sample of material from Cranial cavity)
White crystals on disintegrated woven fabric
Cl: SO3 (trace on standing): no alkalinity to phenolphthalein
No colour extracted by alcohol but tiny brownish residue on evaporation
No evidence of resin. No grease stain on paper from dried alcoholic extract.
317B2. (Very small sample of material from abdomen)
Practically identical with above - Cl, no SO3, no fat, no evidence of resin though alcoholic solution slightly coloured + when dry rather more brownish residue
(continued over)

TAA i.2.12a.5.36


Small Coffin 317a (Outer) Anthropoid

Gilt + varnished black.
Headdress gilt + blue paint in alternate stripes.
In very bad condition
Cleaned pigment with benzine
Cleaned gold with NH3 + varnish with water.
Treated with celluloid in acetone
At bottom of coffin (inside) were numerous dead insects embedded in the varnish and a few small beetles (See 317b)

Possibly not beetles - but may be larvae of beetles.
On outside of bottom was a patch of course quartz sand adhering.

Like 317a. Same treatment.
On outside of bottom was a patch of coarse quartz sand + also a few small leaves of the shape of willow leaves.
Inside were some hundreds of small dead beetles (look like eggs or beads) - not embedded in varnish

317 a + b (Inner) Anthropoid

Cleaned with NH3. Treated with celluloid.

(N.B. Celluloid excellent for gilt unless there are blisters)

Inside (a) + (b) were mummified foetuses wrapped in linen

TAA i.2.12a.5.36 verso

317 B2 (Continued)
Small piece (narrow) of curved black material from over embalming incision. (Under side brownish)
Edges in places brown and somewhat resinous-looking
Fresh fracture black + slightly shiny
Burns with smoky flame (large ash left) and gives off smell of burning nitrogenous matter.
Heated with CaO excellent + definite test for NH3
Slightly soluble in alcohol; residue on evaporation of alcohol yellowish + slightly resinous-looking but probably not resin. No greasy stain on paper
No evidence of beeswax.
With HCl no effervescence.
Under microscope many whitish particles, some apparently quartz crystals.
In hot alcohol a fair amount soluble which gives a yellowish solution and is ppd on cooling - and looks like soap (is not soap) i.e. flocculent + somewhat jelly-like. No greasy stain on paper.
Resin: Negative
Fat: -do-
Nitrogenous organic (i.e. animal tissue)

TAA i.2.12a.5.37


330 Shawabti Figures

Faces painted (+ hands)
Body gesso-gilt
Occasionally ebony head-dresses (two)

Fixed paint with dilute (1%) celluloid in amyl acetate
Tried French "Fixative" for Pastels, also Scott's suggestion of 1% Cellulose acetate in Acetone.
No much difference between celluloid + cellulose acetate, but celluloid seems slightly the better.
All darken the wood where unpainted slightly.

Cleaned gilt with NH3: Ebony washed with water.
Treated repeatedly with strong celluloid solution - except face + heads
9/10/27 Five done - one much blistered; waxed by HC.
Five have croziers - Cu or bronze
One has flail - Cu or bronze gilt.
One has insignia of Cu or bronze on forehead
10/10/27 Three - treated + cleaned as above.
Two with flails, all with croziers (Cu or bronze flails - gilt)
All have insignia of Cu or bronze on forehead

10/10/27 One (330I) - wood not gilt - little paint in places
Dusted with soft brush
Cleaned with benzine (one bad patch of fungus)
Treated with dilute celluloid solution which darkened wood slightly.

Two stone with paint (Both CaCO3 - one alabaster one not very like alabaster crystalline limestone
Much stained by organic matter from packing (linen mats)
Brushed with soap + water except where painted. Ruined with water. - Stains only slightly removed.

TAA i.2.12a.5.37 verso

330 Box

Painted white
Inscription on lid in black hieratic
Much decayed leather adhering

Chipped off leather

TAA i.2.12a.5.38


12/10/27 Two (330 J + K)
One with ebony head-dress
Wood - no paint, but pleasing bloom
Cleaned carefully with brush so as to leave bloom
Both have flail (Cu or bronze gilt) + sceptre
On sceptre much sulphide of copper.

Stone - crystalline limestone
Washed with water except where painted.

330 (Contd)

P Croziers 2
Q Hoes 15 (Connecting wire = Cu; no Sn
Hoe 2 Cu, no Sn
Picks 142/29 15 (Connecting wire = Cu, no Sn
Pick = Cu little Sn
Yokes 14 = Cu, no Sn
Baskets 30 (Tested 1 = Cu - no Sn)
Repeated on fresh sample in every case with identical results.

Little black + red oxide + in small cases a little green patina but not more than tarnished.
Cleaned with water + brush

322 Shawabtis

10 Stone 7 red quartziite 3 dark grey speckled granite (?)
Treatment. Washed except where painted
10 Yokes
21 Hoes
10 Picks
Condition and Treatment as above

TAA i.2.12a.5.39


Kiosks containing Shawabtis 318, 322, 325, 326

Wood varnished black
Brushed off dust
Washed with damp sponge
Treated with cellulose acetate in Acetone.
(C.acetate chosen because there was plenty of the solution - acetone fixes black varnish well.)

Shawabti Figures 325 A and B + 326 A

Faces painted
Wood with inscription filled in with yellow pigment
Gilt collars + bracelets + gilt flails
Cleaned gilt with ammonia
Fixed paint on face with dilute celluloid in Amyl acetate

Shawabtis 326 B, C, D + E

Gilt - very bad condition

Cleaned with NH3 + water
Strengthened + fixed loose pieces with strong celluloid solution.

Shawabtis 329 A-K
Red quartzite - painted in places
Brushed only -
Efflorescence ? NaCl in places.

TAA i.2.12a.5.40


Shawabtis 328 A - M

Alabaster. Washed except where painted

Implements with Shawabti Figures.

328 D. Blue Faience
Baskets (Covered with an eff. of long silky needles = NaCl)
Washed with water

329 N. Blue Faience
Washed with water.

327 00 Copper or Bronze

Hoes (41)
Mostly very clean, scarcely tarnished: a few with slight corrosion
Cleaned with ammonia.

322 K Cu or Bronze
Hoes (21)
Picks (10)
Yokes (10)
In good condition: tarnished
Cleaned with ammonia.

TAA i.2.12a.5.41


Implements (Continued)

327 00 Cu or Bronze
Yokes (41)
Mostly fairly clean: some green corrosion
Cleaned with ammonia.

319 P Cu or Bronze
Yokes 15
Baskets 30 (Copper)
Most of these were coated with a thin coat of black resin varnish.
Cleaned with ammonia.

319P Cu or Bronze
Picks 15
Hoes 15
Cleaned with ammonia

325G Cu or Bronze
Yokes 6
Picks 6
Hoes 6
Buckets 12 (copper)
Cleaned with ammonia

329N Cu or Bronze
9 Yokes
10 Picks
Cleaned with ammonia

327 00 Cu or Bronze
Picks 38 + 2 parts
Cleaned with H2SO4, NH3 + water

TAA i.2.12a.5.42


Implements (continued)
327 00 Baskets 69
Cleaned with ammonia

326 Z Copper or Bronze
Picks 20 (Tested 1 = Cu, no Sn)
Hoes 17 + several broken parts (144/27)
Very corroded (green)
Cleaned with H2SO4, NH3 + water

326I Cu or Bronze
Yokes 8
Baskets - Copper - about 44 many broken
Cleaned with H2SO4, NH3 + water

Shawabtis 319 A-O = 15

Wood painted - mostly on gesso except for M, N + O (much fungus)
Cleaned with benzine
Treated with celluloid in amyl acetate Examined Blue paint in several cases = frit.
In bad condition.

Implements 324 V

Hoes 22
Picks 22
Yokes 22
Baskets 43

Cleaned with NH3

TAA i.2.12a.5.42 verso

Bow Case
Wood base
Gold panels
Inlaid bark
Beetles wings
Inlaid leather (green)
Some of bark inlay gilded

Cleaned + treated by H.C.
Brushed off dust + fungus
Cleaned with benzine (water buckled bark)
Treated with "Thirds" as used by Artists 1/3 Cepal soln. (pict. Copal varnish)
1/3 Linseed oil
1/3 Turps
Very satisfactory: darkened very slightly
This treatment did not fix loose pieces of inlay (bark etc) so the object was finally treated a dilute solution of celluloid in amyl acetate. (Cellulose acetate in acetone (1%) tried but not so good)

Tried (in order to fix bark) on tiny pieces of bark separate from case + in several instances not belonging to case.
Duroprene Did not adhere
Cell. acetate in Acetone 1% Gave white coating
Mastic in alcohol 5% Gave varnished surface + did not adhere
Cell in Amyl Acet 1% (1 coat) did not adhere -do- 1% (2 coats) adhered -do- 2 % (1 coat) -do-

H.C. finally coated the case with hot wax - very successful + colours did not suffer. (? whether previous coatings prevented wax from darkening colours)

TAA i.2.12a.5.43



323 Q
17 Hoes
14 Picks
16 Yokes
32 Buckets

A little sulphide on surface + a little green on baskets.
Cleaned with ammonia.
(See Shawabtis 323 A-F below for As2S3)

Shawabti 324 A to T

Wood, painted (not on gesso):- much stopping in many cases
Cleaned with benzine
Repaired where broken with celluloid cement.
Treated with dilute celluloid solution

(On A-F slight wash of yellow ? orpiment
Blue of headdress is now green superficially)

Shawabtis 323 A to N
A-I. Gesso painted (A-F: yellow like As2S3 in stripes in head-dresses)
J-N Paint directly on wood
Cleaned as above
Treated as above
Gesso very bad condition - consolidated with strong celluloid solution.

TAA i.2.12a.5.44


Model Tools (Small) 316 (13 complete 3 handles no blades 1 blade no handle + 2 further blades found in box.
In wooden handles
Tools chiefly chisels (?) but also borer (?) and knives (?)
Handles. Hard, dark red wood
Tools. Iron Weight of each blade probably about ½ gram x (estimated)
Tools were attracted by magnet; they looked like iron coated with oxide (black + red); the corroded coating gave the usual tests for iron (yellow sol. with HCl, which gave blue with K4HCy6)

Cleaned handles with damp sponge (145/27)
Cleaned tools by gentle brushing + scraping + rubbing with kerosene - this only partly successful, but too fragile (originally only tiny + thin) to allow of much cleaning. In one case tried con. HNO3: this removed some of the corrosion in patches + might have done more if persisted in - bright metallic surface in parts
x Weighed the 3 loose blades:- (a) 0.20 gram (b) 0.20 gram (c) = 0.25 gram.
16 x 0.25 = 4 grams max

Boxes 315, 316, 317

Have been painted (washed) with thin coat of yellow outside
317 varnished black inside + 315 on under side of lid.
Fungus both inside + out in all cases.
In 317 some few dead beetles (usual kind like small beads)
Consolidated strings + seals with celluloid solution.

In 315 (found empty) short lengths of papyrus stalks and pith both in thin slices + cut into narrow strips used as packing medium

TAA i.2.12a.5.44 verso

Guardian Figures from Shrine

Wood - gesso-gilt
Cleaned with ammonia + warm water

TAA i.2.12a.5.45


Canopic Shrine 266 Outer Canopy

Wood covered with gesso gilt + ornamented at top with uraei of wood gesso gilt with blue faience heads; eyes, red (?)glass; eyesockets copper or bronze; bodies inlaid with blue (dark + light) glass + red glass.
Some fungus - fair amount.
At the top of all the eight upright corner posts except two (these facing different ways) the gold was tarnished (practically black + suggestive of silver sulphide). This discoloration continued for about a foot down + ended abruptly - it was not on cross pieces nor on panels. Could not be removed either with warm water or with ammonia.
Cleaned gilt except where tarnished as above with ammonia + warm water.
Inside the upright corner posts all were free from black except in one case where there was a little.
One panel + two horizontal pieces had patches of dark plum colour.
Waxed by H.C.
Black varnish on roof (except on edges) + black varnish on sledge (centre). This washed with water + waxed.
Inner Shrine Gesso-gilt
Fairly clean - no very marked discoloration. Cleaned with warm water and ammonia. Eye sockets of bronze or copper for uraei - eyes missing in every case.

Box (+ small sledge) - (sledge wood - gesso - gilt)
Alabaster. Engraved + incisions filled in with black paint.
Handles to sledge are silver with yellow (gold) coloured patches.
Staples are metal, probably copper or bronze, covered with gold foil.
Inside of box hollowed out to represent four compartments with jars. Loose lids with king's heads.

TAA i.2.12a.5.46


Some of the insignia on foreheads + a patch at end of one nose repaired with a reddish cement. (Several small splashes of apparently similar cement on linen covering of box)
Inside the imitation jars were gold coffins (inlaid) - miniatures of the large middle coffin - These were surrounded with linen and over all had been poured a dark brown viscous liquid similar in appearance to the anointing liquid used on + in the gold coffin. This had stuck the small model coffins fast inside the jars

Miniature Coffin 266 G. N. E.

Gold inlaid with glass (dark + light blue) and carnelian.
Eyes of bird and pupils of eyes of face = obsidian
Eyeballs missing
Cleaned (by HC) with warm water, NH3 + acetone.
Cleaning of lid finished (by A.L.) with pyridine (removes black well) NH3, acetone + water. Waxed by H.C.

Solvents for Black
(a) Pyridine - entirely soluble
(b) Trichloroethylene - fairly soluble
(c) Acetone - fairly soluble - better than (b)
(d) CCl4 insoluble.

TAA i.2.12a.5.46 verso

Box 271
Elaborated decorated with ivory + gold.

Slippers on feet are of silver.

(No information from what object)

Yellowish colour: hard.

Largely soluble in HCl with effervescence.
No SO3 in HCl solution.
On heating blackens + gives off smell of burning nitrogenous matter.
Disintegrated by water: solution froths slightly on stirring + has a faint smell slightly suggestive of glue.
Insoluble in HCl:-
Not soluble in alcohol - not resin
-do- water - not gum or glue
-do- in CHCl3 - not beeswax
-do- in NaOH - not As2S3
Soluble in con. hot HCl giving yellow solution which gives tests for iron. Is yellow oxide of iron = yellow ochre.

= Whiting + glue + yellow ochre.
(Noted by H.C.)

TAA i.2.12a.5.47


Experiments with ?Raw Hide from Chariot Wheels (332-333)

To soften + make pliable
(a) Duroprene
(b) Castor Oil (1) + Benzine (1)
(c) Castor Oil (1) + Turps. (1)
(d) Castor Oil
(e) Glycerine
(f) Glycerine (5%) sol. in water
(g) Canada Balsam in Xylol
(h) Celluloid in Acetone 6%
(i) Celluloid in Amyl Acetate 1%
Left in most cases for 4 days but (e) for 2 days.
After 1 day (f) disintegrated.
No softening in any other case.

Gelatine in water - various strengths
Water alone.

Hide became yellowish + pliable and in some instances almost jelly like: somewhat translucent. On removal from solution gradually dried + hardened + became brittle, but remained yellow + translucent. The best conditions on the small fragments tested proved to be:-
Water very hot (almost boiling) + 1% gelatine left for from 10 to 15 minutes.
Water alone gave fairly good results, but not so good as with gelatine.
Glycerine delayed hardening: 5% glycerine found best.

No further specimens available - alcohol + alcohol + glycerine should be tried

TAA i.2.12a.5.47 verso

458 Shawabti

Wood gesso-gilt
Gilt + gesso much eaten by insects - appearance of eaten patches very characteristic. Same on two small writing boards (gesso only not gilt) + on gesso-gilt shield

461 Faience Vessels

In red box at S. end of Annexe.
One white
Mostly very pale green
A few dark blue
Much white efflorescence on many.

Annexe (Contd)

Spots of green (? from chisels) on E wall + in left side of doorway (These were tested + found to be copper, probably carbonate)
Large patch of scarlet on S. wall.
Most fungus on N + E walls.
Floor pink in places
Small bag (now broken) of pieces of yellow material like orpiment.
Pink on ceiling more pronounced at edges of cracks
Boxes 550, 548, 547.
Smoke Stains
(a) Inside doorway (at top) of Annexe
(b) On ceiling N.E. corner of Burial Chamber
(c) Small natural depression in W. wall of annexe - bottom of depressions forms ledge on which a small lamp has stood, top of depression smoke stained.
Corslet + binding at top of pavilion poles in fairly good condition

TAA i.2.12a.5.48


Annexe. (Doorway No 171)
Opened 27.11.27
(The south end of Ante Chamber cleared to provide access: pink patches on floor and pink of south wall very noticeable) Also scarlet where there are calcite veins. Plaster of doorway dark grey - small black particles (unburned fuel) present.
Stones at sides of doorway pink; also stones fallen inwards pink on top. Walls rough stone very pink in places spotted over with fungus (much): very slight fungus on ceiling
also pink where plaster
One very large pink patch on Annexe ceiling (Antechamber pink in places on ceiling) especially at edges of cracks. On left of doorway one stone is smooth and scarlet with a surface like enamel.
Scarlet where the stone more crystalline (i.e. calcite)
On the floor were some irregular-shaped pieces of resin looking like colophony, but redder than is usual with colophony.
Also a number of pieces of galena (once in a small bay which had broken).
At first doorway at bottom of steps the thin plaster on the wooden lintel (but not beyond the lintel) has a very slight reddish tinge.
On floor of Annexe were a number of small irregular, friable lumps of red material, looking like artificially-made lumps of red ochre.
The s'ple referred to below distinct from the orpiment. Also blue powder (little)
Also small irregular lumps which on testing were yellow ochre (+ looked like it)

TAA i.2.12a.5.48 verso

620 Thick white coating outside shallow red pottery vessel (? used as cover for another vessel) Coating = CaSO4 containing CaCO3
620 (147/27)
Thin white coating outside red pottery jar.
Chiefly CaCO3 (or CaCO3 + MgCO3 since not immediately soluble in HCl though readily on warming) (148/27)
Only trace CaSO4
Contents of Pottery Jar with long slender neck.
At bottom a brown mass covered with white stars of radiating crystals: under side honeycombed + covered with small white crystals.
At beginning of neck similar white stars masses
(Between deposit + neck a considerable area of jar surface without deposit or crystals)
(Cl) SO3 (alkalinity) = negative
With HCl readily dissolves with effervescence giving a yellowish solution.
On heating blackens slightly.
No K2CO3 Na2CO3 or Tartrate (or possibly + small tartrate)
? See WB 6/44 ?

Black Dust from Floor
(a) Finely-divided material from decayed
compared with actual fruits from chamber.
+ insect-attacked fruits
(b) Remains of insects, particularly chitinous remains of small beetles
(c) Material that has probably been through bodies of insects (long pellets)
(d) Small proportion NaCl. (with a little SO3)

TAA i.2.12a.5.49


620 Minerals from Floor Rubbish.

(a) Small piece of amorphous brick-red material = Red Ochre

(b) Small piece of amorphous dull yellow material = Yellow Ochre

(b) Another small piece of this gave a good reaction for NH3 when heated with CaO (Black trace NH3 only) This clung to fingers + soiled hands + paper, wood + stone.

(c) Several pieces of bright yellow material, red patches, pearly lustre, crystalline = orpiment. (Red = Realgar)

(c) Small irregular lump: outside brownish with tiny white patches. Interior black + with naked eye apparently homogenous, but under microscope is seen to be made up of granules (quartz sand) embedded in black cement (oxide of iron)
Brown on exterior = Fe2U3
White on exterior = CaCu3
? Vein of oxide of iron from Nubian sandstone.

(d) Small lump of a brownish to dark purple colour. Under microscope seen to be granular + not very unlike (c) but cement is brown (Fe2U3) + not black. Purple suggests a little manganese.

620 Section of Compound Bow. (150/27)
Outside covered with thin bark.
In piece practically black.
When scraped light brown.
Under microscope - translucent yellowish, full of cracks + fissures. Thick section under 1" objective = no visible structure. Thinner section under both 1" + ½" appears to have structure but not certain.
Insol. in all ordinary solvents. Water soln. brown.
Burns with smoky flame + give off smell of burning Nitrogenous matter.
Soaked in hot water becomes soft + pliable + soln. smells strongly of nitrogenous matter.
Probably horn or thick hide such as rhinocerous or hippopotamus

TAA i.2.12a.5.49 verso

Head Rests
(a) Dark blue faience
(b) Turquoise blue glass much discoloured with brown patches
(c) Two ivory. (Faces of Bess on one are stained green) Other parts stained red + others black

Large piece
Made water solution.
Evaptd to dryness (12/28)
Light brown plates very like glue or albumen: nitrogenous smell on burning.

Thin Cake of Dark Mud-coloured Material (151/27)
Fracture green. Has been circular - broken + part missing
Green is due to Cu (Tested)
Melts readily: gives translucent stain on paper when melted.
Alcohol. Insoluble cold: partly soluble hot
Sols. green
CHCl3 Partly soluble.
Benzene Slightly soluble (Repeat: only slightly sol.)
Very suggestive of paraffin wax as colour not the deep brown colour of ancient beeswax. Action of solvents however = beeswax.
Acetone Insoluble
Acidity No evidence
NaOH Probably not saponifiable or only partly so
Slightly harder than paraffin wax.
Possibly bleached beeswax.

TAA i.2.12a.5.50


620 Small Metal Scimitar
From light colour is probably bronze.
Black, green + red corrosion.
Cleaned with 10% H2SO4, followed by NH3 + washing.
Handle inlaid wood ornamented with narrow gold bands.
Wood cleaned with damp sponge
Gold cleaned in flame of spirit lamp.
Cleaning only preliminary

620 Small Goose
Wood, painted + varnished.
Cleaned with benzine, then with damp brush.
Treated with celluloid in amyl acetate to fix ivory panel.

620 Small Cone (Part of an Object)
Blue with gold band round bottom edge
Cement on bottom - this light brown.
Au, cleaned with NH3
Material probably serpentine
Cleaned with water.

? Gold Ends (Mounts) for Castanets
Cleaned with heat + nitric acid

469 Silver Vase Pomegranate shape. Slightly broken at top.
Slight tarnish - This AgCl as removed by NH3
Inside, a large number of small dead beetles, embedded in a brown material. This largely soluble in hot water.
Cleaned outside with NH3
" inside " water
Manifestly fair prop. of Au in metal ? Electrum

TAA i.2.12a.5.51


? Bread
(a) Remains of insects, including chitinous skeletons of small beetles
(b) Material that has probably passed through body of insects.
(c) Probably much of original material, now blackened. No complete analysis possible on spot. (13/28)

Small Cartouche-shaped Box.

Dark red wood
Incised cartouche on lid inlaid with blue paint.
Knobs - ivory, stained red.
Cleaned with water (white dust ingrained in)
(NH3 removed white spots not removable with water, acetone, alcohol, benzine or pyridine but blackened the blue apparently by formation of CuO)

Faience Vases and Saucers
Dark Blue
Washed with water.

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