Chariots (TAA i.3.8)

Howard Carter's notes made in preparation of the complete publication of Tutankhamun's tomb
This section:
Concept & Direction: Jaromir Malek
Scanning: Kent Rawlinson, Keunjoo Kim and Jenni Navratil
Transcription and editing:
Sue Hutchison, Hana Navrátilová and Jaromir Malek
Coordination: Elizabeth Fleming

TAA i.3.8.1 = Burton photo. p1813

TAA i.3.8.2 = Burton photo. p1816

TAA i.3.8.3 = Burton photo. p1810

TAA i.3.8.4

TAA i.3.8.5 = MMA photo. 2094 (TT 75, Bibl. i2, 147(4) IV-V)

TAA i.3.8.6 = Burton photo. p1498

TAA i.3.8.7

TAA i.3.8.8 = Burton photo. p0576

TAA i.3.8.9, short note, not by Carter, not scanned or transcribed

Essay on Tutankhamun's chariots, TAA i.3.8.10-17, based on Howard Carter's notes, probably edited by Mrs. Jane Waley in 1946-7.

TAA i.3.8.10, page 1

Six chariots were found in the Tomb of Tut'ankhamûn. Two were highly decorated and appear hardly to have been used before they were placed in the tomb. In the Antechamber with these decorated chariots were two others, of heavier make and plainer construction and decoration. There were two more in the "Treasury", slightly smaller and lighter; these were found in a broken and incomplete condition. The bodies of the two State chariots, as Carter has called them, are enclosed with thin wood boarding entirely covered with gesso and gold and further decorated with inlaid glass and ivory. The bodies of the two broken chariots in the "Treasury" were partly of leather which has now perished, but which was originally decorated with gold overlay; and the two plainer chariots in the Antechamber had open framework bodies unenclosed either by wood or by leather.

It will be more convenient to refer to the chariots under their Tomb numbers. The information, diagrammatic studies and photographs are supplied in Carter's card catalogue (Tomb of Tut.Ankh.Amen, Vol. I, p. 164) in numerical order of objects as they were found in the Tomb.

120 State chariot
121 Open, heavy chariot
122 State chariot
161 Open, heavy chariot
332 Light, smaller chariot
333 " " "

Component parts of each chariot:
Framework of body
Yoke and yoke-saddles
Fragments of harness trappings

Framework of chariot bodies

Wooden bar, of straight-grained wood bent to required shape; round in section, of uniform diameter, except where it swells for junction with axle at boss.

a) Upper rim and side frame, all one piece.
b) Under-frame, straight-grained wood bent, jointed with mortice to swollen ends of side frame; ends project as bosses. Pierced with holes through which leather mesh floor is lashed.
c) Secondary frame, found in nos. 120, 121 and 122.
Consists of two pieces glued together as double bar, <> in section, jointed to upper rim, projects forward and out from main line of frame, spreading to form
(i) space containing decorations, i.e figures of captives in 120, 122 floral design in the round in 121;
(ii) loop for quiver fastenings.
d) Back floor-bar, joins ends of frame at max. width, pierced with holes for leather mesh floor; this consists of leather strip woven in and out and lashed through holes in back floor-bar and under-frame - variously covered.

TAA i.3.8.11, page 2

e) Stays; a pair with a central stay, jointed to upper rim and under-frame in open chariots 121 and 161, as supports for leather walls of body nos. 332 and 333.
f) Thin wood boarding closing open framework bodies in nos. 120 and 122 - the whole surface, inside and out, highly decorated.

Component parts: one piece of wood, ends plain, bound with leather; 4 collars, highly decorated, centring on pegs for attachment to back floor-bar (present only in 122);
2 "chairs" - decorated plaques with socket to receive chariot-body at boss point;
1 central plaque, standing up from axle-pole, conceals and fixes end of chariot-pole, shaped to fit axle at this central point.

120 and 122 exactly similar in construction and proportions
121, 161, 332, 333 similar in construction (though 332 and 333 comparatively light)
Pole of straight-grained wood bent, and reinforced with blocks bound on with leather at bend, where front of under-frame rests.
End shaped as tenon to fit axle below foot-board.
Pear-shaped in section along shaft of pole (121 is 5.6 cms. in diameter.)
Leather thongs bind pole in several places - only traces remain.
Hawk figures - three found, one each for 120 and 122 and one unknown. Presumably attached to pole between chariot and horses, at highest point in pole shaft.

Yoke and yoke-saddles
Component parts: main arms of hard dark wood (? one piece)
hooks, separate pieces joined and bound on for strength;
leather binding, covered with gold, covers central area and from end of each hook to middle of the arms;
holes through middle of fork, and end of arm for peg of yoke-saddle.
Yoke bound to pole and saddles to yoke with leather thongs.
Saddles attached to pole with leather thongs. Holes through tongues for attachment of leather girth-band and possible auxiliary leather traces to yoke and under-frame. Decorative details on knob of pegs and tongues.

TAA i.3.8.12, page 3

Component parts:
a) Felloe of two curved pieces of straight-grained wood, mitred together, glued and bound with green hide;
b) Spokes each of 2 independent pieces of wood, joined and bound side by side with green hide, linen, glue and gold; in well preserved specimens the longitudinal join only visible through magnifying glass. Spokes tongued and morticed into the felloe or peripheral rim.
c) Leather tyre binds round and conceals tongue wedges of spokes, mortice and spliced join of felloe. Tyre in some cases entirely covered with gesso and gold, even on outside rim in nos. 120 and 122, which suggests that they had not been used before the time of the burial.
d) Nave, wooden, lined inside with leather.
Each half-spoke bent to serve as half neighbouring one, and bend fitted into scalloped section of nave. Above a third of spoke from nave bound with leather and covered with gold, so that details are hidden in unbroken wheels.
e) Flanges from nave covered with leather, ending in collars of bronze or gold where axle-pin is inserted.

Found piled together away from chariots, originally given separate tomb nos.; thus chariot 120 has wheels 133 and 134;
121 132 143;
122 131 136;
161 144 145.

TAA i.3.8.13, page 4

Fragments of harness trappings.

1) Check rowels - a pair for each chariot, fastened one end to nose-strap, their other to saddle on the outside of each horse, to prevent their turning away from each other.
Rowels: wood covered with gesso, gold leaf and coloured barks, made to revolve; spikes of bronze on rowels.

2) Dagger-shaped object, one belonging to 120 and one to 122; wood, length 35.5 cms (120), handle set obliquely carved into figure of African captive. Use undetermined.

3) Harness fragments, comprising applied leather on a basic linen fabric, embellished with embossed sheet-gold. Both leather and linen fabric, with rare exceptions, have completely perished. Impossible to assign parts of harness to any chariot in particular; they are therefore treated in the Card index under no. 122, as most of them were found in the neighbourhood of body 122, in the Antechamber.

Unless otherwise stated all consist of sheet gold fastened to a backing made up of 5 layers - leather, cloth, gesso, cloth, leather; the leather parts having largely melted and run. Indicates raw hide, not leather. There are also some strips of thin wood, ? from 121, and linen pieces from 333.

Some of it is undoubtedly harness, e.g. blinkers, but the larger part seems to belong to something else, possibly to quivers. Cannot be harness, for it sorts roughly into three sets of single objects, which would be useless for a pair of horses. Many of the pieces were sewn round the edges.
122 i-k) pairs of blinkers;
m-s) 9 bosses or disks;
t) 4 sockets of hollow captive figures, traces of glue inside;
u) Part of whip-handle, narrow end;
v-llll) plaques of various shapes and designs, 68 altogether, whole and fragmentary;
mmmm-rrrr) Lengths of strips of gold sheeting backed with leather, cloth and gesso;
150 5 strips of thin wood overlaid with gold, with inscriptions inlaid in glass, found lying on ground near wheels of chariot 121.
Portions of harness from 332 and 333 in "Treasury":
a) 3 decorated objects (wooden slivers), 2 of them a pair, not understood, from either harness or body of chariot;
b) Disks, pairs of blinkers, plaques and strips of embossed sheet gold with leather and linen backing - now mostly perished;
c) Linen pieces from 333:
(i) piece of folded linen, ? basis of a leather object;
(ii) portions of linen housing of horses of heavy linen material (too decayed to observe dimensions or colours); for woven designs see photograph.
d) Whip-stock, possibly belonging to chariot 333, decorated with gesso, gold and bark, with knob of glass with white, blue and yellow chevron pattern.

TAA i.3.8.14, page 5

Carter's note "With the dismembered parts of two chariots found in this chamber was a whip bearing an inscription "The King's son, Captain of the Troops, Dhutmose." Who was this royal prince? - who, to have been Captain of the Troops during the reign of Tut'ankhamûn, could not have been very young. Was he a son of Amenophis III? That problem has yet to be solved. If he was a son of Tuthmosis IV, and was living at the time of Tut'ankhamûn's burial, he must have reached at least 60 years of age; whereas, if he was a son of Amenophis III, as one would suspect him to have been, he would not have been more than about 35 years of age at the time of Tut'ankhamûn's death. Circumstantial evidence of this kind should have some bearing upon the possibility of that prince's parentage."

Vol. III p. 97

TAA i.3.8.15, page 6

Comparative material.

Two chariots or portions of chariots have been found in tombs of the Eighteenth Dynasty. In the tomb of Yuya and Tuya a complete chariot was found; for descriptions and illustration see The Tomb of Iouiya and Touyou, by Carter and Newberry. The tomb of Tuthmosis IV contained the body of a chariot and some fragments of other parts and leather trappings, but no wheels. For description, mostly of the ornamentation of the panels of the body, see The Tomb of Thoutmôsis IV, by Carter and Newberry.

These chariots are constructed on very much the same principles as those of Tut'ankhamûn. It may be useful to notice some of the points of difference.

1) Chariot from the Tomb of Iuaa and Tuiu.

a. Framework of body:
upper rim with almost rectangular corners round 3 sides and half the 4th.
side frames, separate pieces jointed to upper rim.
7 stays or 'uprights' joined to upper rim and under frame round body of chariot.
1 stay or 'upright' joined to end of upper rim half-way across back of chariot, and back floor-bar; this half closes the back of the chariot, where the Tut'ankhamûn ones are quite open.
rectangular joins, giving body much squarer appearance than the Tut'ankhamûn ones give.
b. Sides of body, entirely closed originally with leather - red leather above and gilt leather with low relief designs below.
c. Axle and back floor bar, bound together at ends and at four equal intervals between the gilt leather. There are no "chairs" and no central plaque corresponding with the position of the end of the pole.
d. Pole - no trace of hawk figures.
e. Yoke - one piece of wood, pinned and lashed to pole 6 cms. from end, round knobs at ends instead of hooks, no yoke-saddles.
f. Wheels - 75 cms. in diameter
Spokes apparently of one piece of wood each, morticed and tenoned into nave formed by hollow wood cylinder.

2) Chariot from the Tomb of Tuthmosis IV.

a. Sides of body entirely closed with panels of wood, covered with canvas, stucco and fine linen modelled with scenes in low relief.
b. Dimensions of body: Height, 86 cms.
Depth of floor space, 52 cms
Width, 103 cms.
c. Fragments only of other parts:
yoke-saddle and fragment of its fellow - wood covered w. leather;
end of pole shaped to fit into socket of under-frame and axle
leather trappings - embossed with designs, remains of stitching round margins.

TAA i.3.8.16, page 7

Paintings and reliefs from tombs help to supply the information about harnessing and trappings of the horses and chariots which cannot be deduced from the perished fragments of leather which survive. Details of harness are clear in several pictures of horses and chariots, and studies have been made from

Theban Tomb 39, Puyemre'. Trade scenes, making chariots (Top. Bibl.,I, p.68, plan of Hall (1) 2nd register.)

Theban Tomb 69, Menna. Horse and chariot in agricultural scenes. (Top. Bibl., I, p.92, plan of Hall (2) 1st register.)

Theban Tomb 75, Amenhotep-si-se. Horse and chariot arriving at banquet. (Top. Bibl., I, p.98 plan of Hall (7) 5th register.)

Tomb of Tuthmosis IV. decorative scenes on panels of chariot.

Temple of Luxor. Tut'ankhamûn reliefs usurped by Haremhab. W. wall. (Top. Bibl., II, Processional colonnade (49) plan p.98.)

TAA i.3.8.17, page 8

Chariot Max. W. of body Max. H. of body Max. depth of floor space Max. W. of 2nd frame Diam. of frame L. of axle L. of pole L. of yoke Diam. of wheels

120 105 cm 78 cm 46 cm 110 cm 3.2 cm 216 85.5 93 cm
121 100 - 236 243 82.5 94
122 102 75 44 109.4 3.2 256 89.5 92
161 107 71 50 - 235 250 95 97
332 - 2.5 230 260 84
333 96 38.5 - 197.5 80

Essay on Egyptian chariots, TAA i.3.8.18-22

TAA i.3.8.18, page 1


The Egyptian chariots were small, usually only large enough to contain two persons standing upright. They were very light, and could be driven at a great speed. The under-carriage, about 1.75 ms. wide from wheel to wheel, and therefore suitable for narrow tracks, desert, or mountainous roads. They were used in war, hunting, and processional purposes. In battle, the Egyptians fought from their chariots - the chariot corps constituted a very large and effective portion of the ancient Egyptian army. The chariot was open at the back, so that the occupants might readily leap to the ground and up again as might be necessary. In driving, a short whip was used. Although a car was made to contain two persons, the king is invariably represented alone in his chariot, with the reins fastened round his body, when engaged in bending his bow or casting his spear.

These vehicles were sometimes splendidly ornamented with gold, and inlaid with semi-precious stones, faience, and coloured glass. Three specimens found in this tomb, judging from their rich adornment, seem to have been appendages of Egyptian pomp and magnificence; the other three specimens, although equally well constructed, were not so sumptuous in character, and were probably intended for general purposes, such as hunting or promenading.

It would seem that the manufacture of the chariots received an immense impulse from the earlier monarchs of the Egyptian New Empire, by whom the craft was very much encouraged, for, during the Eighteenth dynasty the chariot builders became masters in their craft and shew extraordinary skilful structural adaptation.

The manufacture of chariots was a combination of crafts rarely united in one trade, embracing as it did work in such divers materials as wood, bronze, gold, linen, and leather, etc. And many highly-skilled artisans must necessarily have been

TAA i.3.8.19 and TAA i.3.8.18 verso, page 2


employed in the various stages of chariot construction. These workmen would include body-makers, who built up the parts in which the charioteer stood; carriage-makers, who made and fitted together all the under parts of the vehicle, on which the body rests; wheel-wrights; smiths for the metal-work; curriers for the leather-work; trimmers for the upholstering; and lastly decorators, - the gilder, inlayer, and painter - who contributed to the elegance of the car.

A great deal of the industry depended upon the selection of materials; for in vehicular construction non-faulty material was naturally of the greatest importance.


The carriage proper comprises an axle-tree and (two) wheels. The body, about half the height of the charioteer and little more than a metre wide, was made of a strong straight-grained wood bent to the required shape. A large portion of the sides, and the whole of the back of the body was open. The uprights parts of the body were tenoned and mortised to the under-frame. The under-frame comprised a rounded piece of straight-grained wood bent semi-circular, so as to form the sides and the front, the two ends of which were attached by double tenons and mortises to a broad foot-board at the back. The under-frame was fixed onto the axle-tree, on which were wooden "chair"-like sockets to receive it, and it was lashed in place with leather thongs at intervals. The pole, made of straight-grained wood of a high quality, was inserted into a socket fixed

TAA i.3.8.20, page 3


underneath the centre of the footboard, and it was bent at the lower extremity, so as to pass under the body and support the front of the under-frame to which it was bound. In addition to this, the body was stayed by means of thick leathern straps attached to its upper front rim and the shaft of the pole. Hence, it will be seen that the pole acted not only as the means of yoking the horses, but also partly as the under-carriage. All structural junctures were bound with green-hide shrunk on to the joints. The floor of the body of the chariot consisted of a mesh of interlaced leathern thongs, and was covered either with an animal skin, or a linen rug of very long pile. This floor, by its elasticity, rendered the motion of the carriage more easy, but additional ease was provided by placing the axle-tree as far back as was possible, and thus utilising as much of the springiness of the pole as was practical. The weight of the body and the charioteer was therefore taken partly by the wheels and partly by the horses, however, the carriage proper received the greater part of this weight.

Although this form of vehicular construction may have the appearance of being of fragile nature, by being made of a straight-grained bent wood, much in the same manner as our bent-wood furniture of to-day, it could withstand a very considerable strain.

The wheels, generally of six spokes, show in their construction a special mechanical knowledge on which we have made little advance. They, in the lightest manner possible, are constructed so as to be the strongest and most durable form for a wooden wheel.

Insert A

TAA i.3.8.21, page 4



The principal parts of the chariot-harness were: - (1) the head-stall & bridle ; (2) an ornamental wooden yoke, which was fastened to the end of the chariot-pole; (3) wooden saddles; (4) a breast-strap; and (5) a girth-strap. The saddles were held in place high up above the withers of the horses by means of the breast and girth straps, and the limbs of the yoke, against which the horses worked, were lashed to the "pillars" of the saddles by means of leather thongs. The yoke, by being lashed to the pole and strengthened by trace-like straps, was immobile, therefore wheeling round must have been very difficult. Indeed, the yoke sufficed for all purposes of draught as well as for backing the chariot; and by it being fixed to the pole and to the saddles, it kept the horses at the same distance and in the same relative position, and prevented them turning outwards from the line of draught.

The head-stall and bridle comprised a "head-piece" fastened behind the ears of the horse and joining the "head-band" over the forehead; to these were attached the "cheek-straps" which ran down the side of the head to the "nose-band" that passed round the horse's nose above the nostrils; and, attached to the head-band, was a "throat-lash", which passed underneath the horse's head at the throat.

insert (a)

The ancient Egyptian contrivance for command over the horses, like a "bit" inserted in the mouth of the horse, is not exactly known. On the monuments the horses' mouths are almost invariably represented partially open, which lead one to suppose that a bit was employed, and that, if so, it was very similar to our "snaffle", or "bridoon", to which the bridle and reins were fastened. This particular kind of bit seems to be represented in the Tut.ankh.Amen sculptures in the Luxor temple (w. wall), a painted casket found in this tomb, as well as in several of the tomb chapels at Sheikh Abd el Gurna. On the other hand, since many pictures of chariots on the monuments show the reins attached to the lower part of the nose-band, it is possible that a bit was not employed, and as no metal bit of Pharaonic period has yet been discovered, the exact means by which the ancient Egyptians obtained

TAA i.3.8.22, page 5



control over their horses is perforce doubtful.

To prevent the horses from seeing anything except what lies in front, small blinkers were attached to the upper cheek-straps.

To each horse were a pair of driving-reins passed through a leathern loop "terret" at the end of the girth-strap, and thence over the horn-like extremity of the yoke; these were sufficiently long to tie round the body of the charioteer when engaged with his bow. The long tapering ends of the terrets were left hanging down the sides of the horses. A kind of bearing-rein, like a large wooden spur with spiked rowel, was employed; this appears to have been attached to the nose-band or perhaps the bit and secured to the saddle gear on the near-side of the horse. The exact use of the spiked rowel which acted on the neck of the horse is not clear, it possibly may have prevented the horse from breaking from the line of draught. - As there were only two of these instruments to each chariot, it would appear that only one was attached to each horse, and that on the outside. Metal buckles, such as we use for securing straps, were apparently unknown to the ancient Egyptians; their means for fastening divers parts of the harness was by narrow leathern thongs. Harness-pads, numnahs, and in the case of royal chariots, highly ornamental housings were employed. Attached to the sides of the body of the chariot were quivers and a bow-case.

The representation of eyes, grotesque figures, and the like, found upon both the chariots and its harness, were evidently supposed to have potency against evil, and the various motives embossed upon the gold that was lavished upon the trappings were also probably deemed to have magical power of some kind.

Note cockades
Note < > pieces of wood
Note <> " "

TAA i.3.8.23

Paintings and reliefs from tombs help to supply the information about harnessing and trappings of the horses and chariots, which cannot be deduced from the perished fragments of leather which survive. Details of harness are clear in several pictures of horses and chariots, and studies have been made from

Theban Tomb 39 Puimre. Trade scenes, making chariots (Top. Bibl I p.68 plan of (39) Hall (1) 2nd register.)

Theban Tomb 69 Menna. Horse and chariot in agricultural scenes. (Top. Bibl. I p.92 plan of (69) Hall (2) 1st register.)

Theban Tomb 75 Amenhotep-si-se. Horse and chariot arriving at banquet. Top. Bibl. I p.98 plan of (75) Hall (7) 5th register.)

Tomb of Tuthmosis IV, decorative scenes of panels of chariot.

Temple of Luxor, Tut'ankhamûn reliefs usurped by Haremhab. W. wall. (Top. Bibl. II Processional colonnade (49) plan p.98.)

TAA i.3.8.24-5 not by Carter, not scanned or transcribed

TAA i.3.8.26 = Burton photo. p1780

TAA i.3.8.27 = Burton photo. p1779

TAA i.3.8.28

TAA i.3.8.29

TAA i.3.8.30-1 are photographs of TAA i.3.8.47, not scanned

TAA i.3.8.32 = Burton photo. p0534

TAA i.3.8.33 = Burton photo. p0558

TAA i.3.8.34

TAA i.3.8.35

TAA i.3.8.36 is a photograph of TAA i.3.8.47

TAA i.3.8.37-9 is a handwritten version of TAA i.3.8.18-19:
TAA i.3.8.37
TAA i.3.8.38
TAA i.3.8.39

TAA i.3.8.39a

Width between the withers of a pair of ordinary cab horses when harnessed to a cab at Luxor measured 64 cms.

TAA i.3.8.40

(A) The Parts of the Chariot

The carriage proper consisted of an axle-tree and (two) wheels. The body, almost half the height of the charioteer and a little more than a metre wide, was made of several sections of a strong straight-grained wood

TAA i.3.8.41 recto


Fragments of a chariot wheel which / that were found / found in the tomb of Amenhotep III (see Vol. II, p. 57 ff) show an even more elaborate and ingenious structure than the complete wheels found in this tomb. Here, their general structure is as follows: a nave, i.e. the central portion, or hub, through which the axle passes (A), which is made of one piece of ... wood, having six concave beds, or grooves, on its outer edge devised to receive corresponding radial bars, and on either side a circular projection to receive corresponding cylindrical flanges (B). The two cylindrical flanges have an important constructive purpose, for they serve to keep the wheel upright during any lateral movement. As a bearing to receive friction, the interior of the nave and flanges was lined with leather. Six radial bars, or spokes (C), made up of six separate V-shaped sections of straight-grained ... wood, pared and bent to the required shape, so that when they were put together they formed six complete radial bars which fitted on to the grooved nave, and reached the peripheral rim, or felloe, to which they were bound & fixed by means of a tenon and mortise shouldered joint. The felloe, or peripheral rim (D),

TAA i.3.8.41 verso


Judging from the dimensions of these chariots, the horses must have small in those days; however, the length of the yokes, and measurements between the saddles is within a centimetre or so of the distance between the withers of a pair of cab horses in harness used Egypt today.

TAA i.3.8.42

A (1)

They consist of a nave, the central portion or hub, through which the axle passess, the spokes, or radial bars, fitted onto the nave and reaching to the peripheral rim, the felloe. Fragments of a chariot-wheel that were found in the tomb of Amenhotep III / ?II show an even more elaborate structure than the complete wheels discovered in this tomb. Here, their general structure is as follows: - A nave (A) was made of one piece of ... wood, having six concave beds, or grooves, with radial divisions, on its outer circumference devised to receive the corresponding radial bars, and on either side a rebated circular projection to receive a corresponding cylindrical flange. The two cylindrical flanges (B) have an important constructive purpose, for they serve to keep the wheel upright during any lateral movement. As a bearing to receive friction from the axle, the interior of the nave and flanges was lined with leather. The six radial bars (C), were made up of six separate V-shaped sections of straight-grained ... wood, pared and bent to the required shape, so that when they were put together they formed six complete spokes which fitted on to the grooved

TAA i.3.8.43

A (2)

nave, and reached the felloe to which they were housed and fixed by means of a tenon and mortise shouldered joint. The felloe (D) was made in two sections of straight-grained ... wood bent to the required circle, and its two sections were joined by means of a "splayed scarf" joints. In some cases a thin rim of wood (E), of several sections, was fixed on the outer circumference of the felloe, like a tyre, but in all instances a thick leather tyre (F) was employed.

The nave, flanges, radial bar sections, and joints of the felloe, when assembled, were glued and bound with raw hide which, when it dried, shrunk and held them tight. These bindings were afterwards covered with either a gold or a bark decoration. So excellent was the joinery of these wheels that, even after a lapse of thirty-three centuries, the joints are still hardly visible to the naked eye. And, it should also be noticed that, this ingenious form of wheel possesses not only the elements of lightness, but it tends to neutralize risk of splitting, and to combine even greater solidity when under any reasonable strain.

TAA i.3.8.44 recto

The various parts and joints were glued and wound with raw hide shrunken on to the wood; these bindings were afterwards covered with gold or bark decoration.

It will be seen that this ingenious form of chariot wheel possesses not only the

TAA i.3.8.44 verso

In the case of the royal chariots, the horses were decorated with an ostrich-feather crest; this was fixed on to the horses' heads by means of a leather cap, by the means of an auxiliary head-piece.

TAA i.3.8.45 recto

the evidence as far as it goes shows that these stays were attached in the opposite manner, thus:-

TAA i.3.8.45a, not by Carter, not scanned

TAA i.3.8.46

head of bronze pin covered with gold
calcite reels
reins passed over horns
yoke bound to pole and saddles bound to yoke with leathern thongs.

TAA i.3.8.47

TAA i.3.8.48

pillar of yoke
chariot of Thothmes IV (fig. 5, p. 29)
horse of a commoner's chariot
chariot of Thothmes IV (fig. 5, p. 29)
this sugegsts a bit
horse of commoner's chariot
although the horse's mouth is open there is no indication of a bit
chariot of Thothmes IV
horse of royal chariot (fig. 3, p. 27)
breast-strap against which the horse works (in combination with the yoke)
(?) a numnah, or continuation of the saddle-pad
(?) ends of throat-lash
'terret' on saddle-pad through which the rein is passed
the saddle, upon which the 'yoke' works, takes the place of the 'harness' upon the 'collar' of the harness
held in position by the girth
end of yoke

TAA i.3.8.49

The principal parts of chariot harness (trappings and housings omitted).
should be fixed near bit

TAA i.3.8.50 recto

Tutankhamun sculptures
Temple of Luxor - West wall
- Dec. 1931
'Terret' - loops or rings on harness-pad for driving-reins to pass through
(?) bit
(?) strap passed through saddle, numnah, breast and girth straps, and acts as 'terret' for reins
breast strap
ostrich feather of crest
attached to throat-lash
spur such as found with chariots.
pillar of saddle
horn of yoke
harness pad or numnah
one of a pair of horses
The width between the withers of ordinary Luxor cab horses when harnessed = 63-65 cents.

TAA i.3.8.50 verso

TAA i.3.8.51

Notes re chariots
yoke attached thus

leather bound

(1) the (?) use of the hole <> at end of pole
(2) auxiliary traces attached to yoke and under-frame of body.

TAA i.3.8.52

Chariot of Yua at Cairo Museum (No. 51188)
Body D-shape
Body of chariot looking from underneath
showing pole, under-frame, and axle-tree
edge of leather covering
over the mesh was laid a piece of leather which formed the floor of the body
mesh of thongs forming floor of body
holes and thongs of mesh floor
leather bindings fastening axle-tree to under-frame of body
1.69 ms.
0.90 ms.
8.5 x 2 cents.
transverse section

TAA i.3.8.53

TAA i.3.8.54

tomb of Amenhetep-si-se No. 75
near line
white horse
back line
mane line
embroidered border

TAA i.3.8.55

TAA i.3.8.56

TAA i.3.8.57, a reproduction of TAA i.3.8.57, not scanned

TAA i.3.8.58, not by Carter, not scanned

TAA i.3.8.59, insignificant fragment of tracing, not scanned

TAA i.3.8.60

TAA i.3.8.61

back of chariot body and axle-tree
Yua chariot - Cairo Museum (No. 51188)

TAA i.3.8.61a, not by Carter, not scanned

TAA i.3.8.62

Body of chariot 121
sheet gold
sheet gold
elaborate gold work and inlay
foot board
pole 121 A
sheet gold
traces of leathern thongs
sheet gold
see 121 B
mistake in dimension
to be lifted to pencil lines
outer rim
all parts of upper frame not marked leather completely covered with sheet gold
outside surfaces completely covered with leather
remains of leather covering
see 121 C
121 D
see 121 B
the end (back) of the socket was very thin in this case
thongs under gold

TAA i.3.8.63

leather tyre
bound with leather & cased with sheet-gold
covered with leather
bound with leather and covered with sheet-gold

TAA i.3.8.64-5, not by Carter, not scanned

TAA i.3.8.66recto

tomb of Menna
white horse coloured red blotches

TAA i.3.8.66 verso

Tomb of Puimre
supports while constructing the chariot

TAA i.3.8.67


TAA i.3.8.68

Note: details of horse on painted casket - Battle of the Syrians (twice life size)

TAA i.3.8.69


TAA i.3.8.70, photograph of TAA i.3.8.47, not scanned

TAA i.3.8.71 = MMA photo. 2094 (TT 75, Bibl. i2, 147(4), IV-V)

TAA i.3.8.72

TAA i.3.8.73

TAA i.3.8.73a, not by Carter, not scanned

TAA i.3.8.74

TAA i.3.8.75

TAA i.3.8.76

TAA i.3.8.77

TAA i.3.8.77a, not by Carter, not scanned

(November 29, 2008)

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