Seal impression No. 272
(Mag. plus 3.) Long axis 2.25 cms.
Device upon seal impressions Nos. 267, 268,
269, 270, 271, 272, 283, 320d.
Seal impression Nos. 271 and 272.
(Mag. plus 3.). Long axis 2.4 cms
Only two examples found.
Seal impression long axis = 2.8 cms.
(Drawing mag. plus 3)
See examples 282
Device upon seal impressions Nos 261Q, 280, 281, 282, 290 to 300, 301, 302, 303, 305, 317, 317a, 317b, 318, 322 to 327, 418, 496, 514, 605, 611, 328, 329.
Seal impression long axis 2.85 cms. No 320
(Mag. plus 3).
Device of seal impressions upon Nos. 275, 279, 320.
Clay seal impression.
(Mag. plus 3). Long axis 2.3 cms.
Fragments from about 12 of these seal impressions were found upon the floor of the treasury and antechamber. One of them < > may possibly come < > from No. 315 with another seal impression - the jackal over nine captives bearing the King's cartouche.
no trace of < >
Clay seal impression Nos. 178, 178a, 179.
(Mag. plus 3.). Long axis 2.3 cms.
Note: A quantity were found on the floor of the Antechamber and Annex. (They possibly came from the latter).
NB Centre figure should be slightly more to the left.
Clay seal impression Nos. 237 and 238
(Mag. plus 3.) Long axis 2.5 cms.
SEAL IMPRESSION UPON DOORWAY OF BURIAL-CHAMBER
MAX. 14.8 X 6.5 CENTS. ? (F.)
SEAL IMPRESSION UPON DOORWAY OF BURIAL-CHAMBER
SEAL IMPRESSION UPON DOORWAY OF BURIAL-CHAMBER.
14.5 X 6.6 cms.
14.6 X 6.6
SEAL IMPRESSION UPON DOORWAY OF ANNEXE
MAX 14.7 X 6.8 CENTS
MIN. - INNER OVAL - 13.7 X 5.9 CENTS.
SEAL IMPRESSION UPON DOORWAY OF ANNEXE
MAX. 14.9 X 6.6, INNER OVAL 14.0 X 5.8 CENTS.
(?) Nothing here unable to see trace of even < >
SEAL IMPRESSION UPON DOORWAY OF ANNEXE
MAX 14.8 X 6.7 CENTS.
MIN - INNER OVAL 13.9 X 5.8 CENTS.
probably < >
see seal (1)
SEAL IMPRESSION UPON DOORWAY OF ANNEXE. MAX 14.6 X 6.8. INNER OVAL 13.6 X 5.8 CENTS.
Note descr. of races
Seal impression No. 238 - Long axis 2.73 cms.
(Mag. plus 3.)
Device upon seal impressions Nos. 237, 238,
fragments found on floor (?) from No. 315
Here the nine captives appear to be all Asiatic.
Clay seal impression Nos. 237 and 238. and 266 B.
(Mag. plus 3.). Long axis 2.5 cms
The first five captives are Asiatic and the remainder African.
This is the identical seal used for closing the canopic box 266 B., 317, 317a&b,
SEAL IMPRESSION No. 320
(MAG PLUS 3.) LONG AXIS 2.85 CMS
DEVICE OF SEAL IMPRESSIONS UPON NOS. 275, 279, 320.
In this seal impression it s not easy to distinguish the Asiatic from the African captives, for neither their characteristics nor their differences have been sufficiently defined by the engraver.
SEAL IMPRESSION LONG AXIS 2.85 CMS.
(MAG. PLUS 3.)
DEVICE UPON SEAL IMPRESSIONS:- Nos. 261q, 280, 281, 282, 290, 291, 292, 293, 294, 295, 296, 297, 298, 299, 300, 301, 302, 303, 305, 318, 322, 323, 324, 325, 326, 327, 328, 329, 418, 496, 514, 605, 611.
The disposition of the nine captives upon this seal impression differs from the customary three rows of three. Here we find an upper row of three Asiatics, a medial row of four Africans, and a lower row of two Asiatics.
Clay seal impression Nos. 271 and 272.
(Mag plus 3.). Long axis 2.4 cms.
Only two examples.
Neb.Kheperu.Re Son of Atum beloved Hrakhte ruler of Heliopolis
Seal impression No. 272
(Mag. plus 3.). Long axis 2.25 cms.
See Nos. 267, 268, 269, 270, 271, 272, 283, and 320d.
This seal is remarkable for delicacy of execution. The motive is Egyptian, yet the technique like the oval is strangely Non-Egyptian - it calls to mind Mycenaean or Aegean gem-engraving.
Clay seal impression
(Mag. plus 3) Long axis 2.8 cms.
Fragments from about 12 of these seal impressions were found upon the floor of the treasury and antechamber. One of them may belong to No. 315 together with another seal impression (I) - the jackal (King's Cartouche) over nine captives.
Clay seal impression No. 178.
(Mag. plus 3.). Long axis 2.3 cms.
Device upon seal impressions Nos. 178, 178a, 179.
A large number found upon the floor of the Antechamber and Annexe - (possibly come from the latter).
Clay seal impression No. 304 - two imprints
(Mag. plus 3.). Long axis 2.4 cms (approx).
disc should be larger
Two fragments of clay seal impressions found on the floor of Antechamber (S), and in Annexe (R).
(S) ( R)
< > < >
This points to there having been something in the tomb from the house of Ay (as king).
The King probably seated.
TAA i.3.22.31 recto
SEALS A - H.
TAA i.3.22.31 verso
Sir Alan Gardiner's reading, March 1960:
"King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Nebkheprure, who spends his life fashioning (that is making images of) the gods that they may give to him (the) breath (of life), libations, and incense every day."
Nine captives as in E
Traces which suit < >
NOTES AND TRANSLATIONS
All readings are certain. The connection of the wings with the body of the scarab will have to be determined from the other frequent occurrences of this form of the winged scarab. This sign, together with the preceding sun-disk must somewhow be read as the king's name. It may be a sportive writing. Compare the Ptolemaic use of the scarab for the word nb "lord". It is not likely that the seal should merely contain the name of the sun-god, "Ra-Khepri", with the epithets translated below.
"Ra-Khepri (probably to be read as royal name), great in love in the whole land".
All readings are certain and rendering presents no difficulties.
"Nebkheperure, who fashioned (that is, made images of) the gods who made festive the houses with his offering(s)".
All readings are clear and rendering presents no difficulties. The writing of one n for two in di-sn nf, is a not uncommon mistake.
"King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Nebkheprure, who spent his life fashioning (that is making images of) the gods, that they might give to him incense, libation(s) and offering(s) every day."
There are two uncertainties in the readings. The place of the upper arm of the climbing builder is not quite certain. Under the house (h-t), there is room for plural strokes, of which however only one is discernible.
"Nebkheprure, who fashioned (that is made images of) Osiris and built his house as in the beginning" (literally, "as in the first time").
This seal has no cartouche over the jackal as in E. It is also about ¾" wider than E, - a fact which makes it certain that H and E are two different seals. H & G are the only seals on the doors not containing the name of Tutenkhamon, unless we except also A.
"Anubis (probably to be understood as the king, as in case of Osiris), triumphant over the nine subject peoples".
This seal, being confined to the third door (28), does not occur often enough to complete the readings. In the second column the plural strokes at the top are not certain. Over the jackal we should probably restore < > "Anubis". The connection of the symbol at the end, the skin on the pole, with the preceding, is not certain.
"Nebkheprure, ... of Maat, ... the Place of Truth, Anubis (probably designating the king), triumphant over the nine subject peoples, beloved of Osiris (or Anubis)".
The restoration of the slight lacuna over the jackal is practically certain. Of the four prostrate captives, only the first shows the head plainly enough to discern the race. He was an Asiatic. The very long skirt worn by the captives suggests Asia for all of them. Compare the "four barbarians" in the Beni Hassan inscr. of Ameni (Breasted, Anc.Rec. I, par. 519). The figures are done with much detail, even the hands and thumbs showing clearly.
"Their overlord, Anubis (that is the king), triumphant over the four captive peoples".
This seal not identical with H, see notes on H. The nine captives seem to be Asiatics, as far as discernible and the ropes terminate in the northern flower wherever they can be distinguished. The addition of the cartouche over the figure of Anubis strengthens the conclusion that the god is to be identified as the king as is so often the case with Osiris.
"Nebkheprure-Anubis, triumphant over the nine Captive peoples".
FIRST DOOR (4)
Contains A, B, C, D, and H. At the time of my examination the distinction between H and E had not yet been noted. It is therefore possible that some of seals recorded as H should be E. The same is true of the second door (13).
The surviving materials do not permit mapping the exact distribution of the seals on this door.
SECOND DOOR (13)
No new seals as compared with Door 4. It presumably bore the same seals as door 4, with "similar traces of successive openings and closings" (H.C.)
The surviving material do not permit mapping the exact distribution of the seals on this door.
THIRD DOOR (171)
This door bears C, D, E, G, and ?. It will be necessary later to compare these seals with the content and purpose of the Annex Chamber and determine whether there is any relation between them.
It will be possible to map the exact distribution of seals on this door when the photographs can be combined with J.H.B.s notes.
FOURTH DOOR (28)
This door bears only A, B, H, and F. It is significant that F, which contains the symbol of the skin on the pole, a symbol twice found in the sepulcher chamber, is found only on this sepulcher door. This suggest that the seals have some relation to the content of the chamber on which they appear.
It will be possible to map the exact distribution of seals on this door when the photographs can be combined with J.H.B.s notes.
The seals are in content testimonials certifying to the king's pious services on behalf of the gods during his life on earth. Note especially C: "Nebkheprure, who spent his life fashioning (images of) the gods, etc.". In this respect the seals are identical in function with the great Papyrus Harris, which is a vast testimonial of the same kind. Their further function was to enlist the protection of the gods for the king's tomb, just as is done in the Pyramid Texts, with which they must be compared when published.
The only seals which might have belonged to later kings are H and G. The place of H on door 28 however, discloses it so involved with B and F that it is certainly one of Tutenkhamon's own seals. G like-
wise is so interpenetrated in its distribution with C and E, that is also certainly a seal employed at the same time as those of Tutenkhamon.
The relation of the seals to the remaining resealing of the doors is still problematic. It is however, perfectly certain that these doors bear no seal of a post-Empire date, nor any seal that is later than the entire group employed in sealing the doors at the completing of the interment.
TAA i.3.22.40 = Burton photo. 0274
Two not shown
on 2nd reclosing = 28
1st reclosing only 6 remain
57 on original
TAA i.3.22.41 verso
Unfortunately the several seals, without any preparation, were hurriedly dabbed on the plaster while it was too wet; with the result the impressions of their devices are so indistinct that, even with the many examples, it is impossible to be quite certain of the correct readings or details. However, with the aid of Dr Alan Gardiner and Professor Breasted, photographs and careful collaboration of the many specimens, fairly certain readings (pl. ...) have been obtained.
TAA i.3.22.41 recto
TAA i.3.22.42 recto
Although the Captive Races - the Nine Bows, five Asiatic and four African - upon these sepulchral seals are generally disposed in three rows of three, it will be noticed in this series of impressions that there does not seem to have been any precise invariable rule for their number, distinction of race, nor disposition. The devices show in one case the nine captives all Asiatic, in another the first five are Asiatic and the latter four African, in a third the racial characteristics are not differentiated at all, in a fourth we find an upper row of three Asiatics, a medial row of four Africans, and a lower row of two Asiatics, and on a fifth example only four captives depicted prone, lying one above the other.
TAA i.3.22.42 verso
No 378. Footstool. (cf faldstool 351)
Dimensions 58.7 x 32.0 x 7.7 cms.
When working on these seals, the special objects to which they were affixed, personal or non personal, one can almost picture the official of the various offices of the household and necropolis administration. How the bearer of one seal was counter-sunk by another. The various forms of the device "Anubis over the 'Nine Bows'" imply a complex system of overseeing objects pertaining to burial ritual. Seal (-) ".... Great in provisions", identified with the packages of foodstuffs throughout the tomb, reflects a Superintendent of the stores.
First Doorway (433-4)
A < > B < > C < > (2 examples only)
D < > E Necropolis seal
Second Doorway (433-13)
No new seal - all same as on first doorway, with "idiosyncrasies of sucessive reopenings & closings".
Third Doorway (433-28)
F < >
This seal 15 times
At Abydos this Osiris pole has < > under it.
The deciphering of the very imperfect seal impressions upon the four sealed doorways of the tomb is mainly, if not wholly, due to the kind assistance rendered by Prof. Breasted and Dr. Alan Gardiner. They spent several days studying them under somewhat difficult circumstances during the early stages of the discovery. It was only after a long and leisured examination of these seal impressions, aided by Mr. Burton's excellent photographs, that I have found it necessary to make but a few minor modifications in their renderings. These slight modifications I shall mention in due sequence.
Eight seals, each bearing a different device, were involved in closing the sealed doorways of the tomb: seven at the time of the burial; and, subsequently, an eighth of less personal type, when closing the breaches made by the tomb-robbers. These have been lettered A to G and H, respectively.
Of the sizes of these seals I am not able to give any exact dimensions, for, after diligent search, I have not succeeded in finding two impressions of the seals perfectly agreeing with each other, and generally the difference is very considerable: but in all cases I have accepted the minimum, which, logically, may be taken as approximating very nearly the true measurement of the actual seal. The slippery nature of the wet plaster inadequately prepared for the purpose of receiving seal-impressions, and the perfunctory manner in which the imprints were stamped, has been the cause of this deficiency, as well as imperfect imprints of the devices engraved upon the matrixes themselves. In fact, in the latter case, it was only by comparing a large number of impressions that it was possible to obtain any idea as to their correct readings. This applied not alone to the large seal-impressions stamped upon the plaster covering the outer surfaces of the sealed doorways; but in a lesser degree to the
small clay seals used for securing the shrines, the canopic box, chests and many other articles forming the burial equipment within the tomb chambers. However the small clay seals upon the burial equipment were generally much clearer and far better done. But even among the them, although numerous specimens found intact, there was not one single impression that was not wanting in some particular detail - generally in the lower portion. The clay (Nile mud) employed for the small seals had evidently been prepared with oil or fat; for, I found, by experiment, that it was not possible to get fair impressions upon clay mixed solely with water, but by moistening the clay with castor oil perfect impressions were easily obtained resembling in colour and character the ancient specimens.
SEAL IMPRESSION (A) - approximate dimensions 14.5 x 6.6 cms.
"Kheper-Re' (possibly a sportive writing for the prenomen of the king), great in love in the whole land."
SEAL IMPRESSION (B) - approximate dimensions 14.6 x 6.6 cms.
"Nebkheperure', who fashioned (i.e., made images of) the gods, who made festive the house with his offering(s)."
SEAL IMPRESSION (C) - approximate dimensions 14.7 x 6.8 cms.
"King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Nebkheperure', who spent his life fashioning (i.e. making images of) the gods, that they might give to him incense, libation(s) and offering(s) every day."
SEAL IMPRESSION (D) - approximate dimensions 14.9 x 6.6 cms.
The only uncertainty in the reading of this seal impression is under the ideogram ht. Prof. Breasted suggests: "there is room
for plural strokes < >, of which, however, only one is discernible." But after a long and careful examination of many impressions I was unable to find evidence even for one stroke, and certainly not room for three. It would therefore appear to read: "Nebkheperure, who fashioned (i.e., made images of) Osiris and built his house as in the beginning (literally, 'as in the first time')."
SEAL IMPRESSION (E) - approximate dimensions 14.8 x 6.7 cms.
The device of this impression shows the prenomen of the king surmounting a recumbent figure of Anubis over nine captives - the 'Nine Bows', - disposed in three rows of three. The prenomen of the king over the figure of Anubis, leads to the conclusion that the king and the god are to be identified as one and that the intended reading is: "Nebkheperure'-'Inpw (Anubis), triumphant over the 'Nine Bows'."
TAA i.3.22.50 recto
Although the engraving of this seal must have been remarkably fine in execution, the impressions are, unfortunately, not sufficiently perfect to make out all its details. The captives appear in most cases to be all northern races, however, a few examples afford evidence that the medial row represents races of the South.
SEAL IMPRESSION (F) - approximate dimensions 14.8 x 6.5 cms.
The few impressions of this seal are too imperfect to obtain a complete reading. The prenomen of the king over the 'gold' sign, ... ma'et ... Wsir in the second column, the recumbent figure of Anubis over the 'Nine Bows', the 'w' above the back of Anubis, and the Anubis emblem, are all more or less certain. The seal impression (K) suggests a reading for the beginning of the second column here, and possibly over the back of Anubis we should restore < > (cf. emblem no. 194).
TAA i.3.22.50 verso
SEAL IMPRESSION (G) - approximate dimensions 14.6 X 6.8 cms.
Here we find contrary to the usual device of this type the Anubis animal represented standing over four prostrate captives. None of the impressions are by any means complete and the following details are wanting: the sign 'tp' in the inscription above Anubis - there is a suspicion that it may be the stroke I, and the captive types which, in all probability, are Asiatic and African alternately represented (cf. stool 378).
SEAL IMPRESSION (H) - approximate dimensions ...
This seal, bearing the recumbent figure of the Anubis Animal, alone, over the 'Nine Bows' - five Asiatic and four African captive races, seems without doubt, to be a departmental seal of the Necropolis Administration. It is well known & has been found on many other occasions.
The blocking of the entrance doorway at the bottom of the steps leading to the descending passage, shew traces of two successive openings and re-closings of a part of its surface: applied to the re-closed portions were seal impressions of the type (H), whereas the impressions that covered the untouched (original) part of the blocking of the doorway shew repeatedly the prenomen of Tut.ankh.Amen
NOTE: Re impressions of the type (H) - wherever the upper part of these impressions was sufficently clear there was no sign of a cartouche above the Anubis animal.
Upon the plaster of the original unharmed part of the blocking fifty-seven seal impressions were visible at the time of the discovery. They proved to be 13 impressions of seal (A), 17 of seal (B), 8 of seal (C ), 9 of seal (D), and 10 of seal (E).
Upon the remaining portion of the second closing - originally a
a breach of about one third in size of the doorway and occupying the whole of the upper southern corner - only seven seal impressions remained, and they were with fair certainty of type (H).
Stamped upon the surface of the plaster covering the stones of the third closing - covering a hole similarly situated as the first breach, but not quite so large - were twenty-eight impressions of one kind and of type (H).
The second sealed doorway, at the end of the descending passage leading directly into the Antechamber, was almost an exact replica of the first doorway, save, perhaps, the seal impressions were less distinct - stone and rubble having been piled against them before they were dry and hard. Corresponding in position to the breaches in the first doorway, were similar traces of successive openings and re-closings clearly discernible upon the plaster, but the breaches in this case had evidently not been quite so large as those on the first doorway. Here I must plead heat of excitement at the moment of the discovery, for I find my notes are not sufficiently complete to give a detailed enumeration of the seals employed; however, my notes after examining both the original and subsequent closings at the time of the discovery record: 'No appreciable difference from the several sealings on the first doorway.' Since, from the fragments preserved, I find no reason for changing this conclusion.
Traces of a small hole, but large enough for a man to pass through, which had been pierced by the thieves at the bottom of the blocking of the doorway leading to the Burial-chamber. were visible at the bottom of the blocking of the doorway leading to the Burial Chamber. It bore at least one hundred and fifty-one seal impressions that were made at the time of internment, and some ... subsequent impressions when the small hole made by the thieves was reclosed. The original seal impressions were as follows: (A) 55 examples, (B) 7 examples, (C )(?) 1 example, (E) 63 examples (some of which may possibly have been of type (H), (F) 21 examples, and (G) 4 examples. The subsequent impressions upon the reclosed hole were (H) ... examples.
Only the upper part of the blocking of the doorway leading to the Annexe remained, the thieves having broken through the lower portion and the breach was never mended. The upper part of the blocking bore the following thirty-three seal impressions:
When dealing with these very imperfect seal impressions, it is possible that in the case of impressions types (E) and (H), by their being so similar in device, they have been confused in identification. However, I should note, among all the impressions of this class upon the original closings of the four doorways, I have not suceeded in finding an impression that could be identified with absolute certainty as seal (H). The impressions of the type on the original closings that could be identified with certainty, always proved to be imprints of seal (E). Under such circumstances it would seem reasonable to suppose that they were all imprints of seal (E), and that seal (H), found repeatedly on the subsequent closings, was only employed by the officials who reclosed the breaches made by the robbers. To strengthen this supposition, the seven seals (A to G), undoubtedly employed during the original closing of the tomb at the time of internment, are all special seals, personal in nature: they either bear the king's prenomen or refer to him indirectly.
TAA i.3.22.59 recto
Whereas, the device of seal (H) is impersonal and apparently departmental,
it has been found in many other instances. To weaken the supposition that
this type are all imprints of (E) on the original sealings, there is the
undeniable fact that two of the shrines shielding the king were secured by
original seals (I) and (J), which are small editions of (E) and (H)
respectively; and that the Canopic box containing the king's viscera was
secured by the identical seal (J) employed on the shrines.
TAA i.3.22.59 verso
It has been a problem which, after repeated study, I have been umable to solve. And, although there is a probability that both of these seals (E and H) were employed when sealing the original blocking of the doorways, my impression is that device (H) was not employed during the reclosings. On these later closings not one of the seal impressions show the presence of a cartouche such as found on seal impression (E). Unfortunately for reasons mentioned above, measurement was of little or no value as an aid to identification.
The grouping of these seals was as haphazard as the perfunctory manner in which they were done. Each seal, or such official with his seal dabbed a number of impressions about the wet surface of the plaster, the blank spaces being filled up with impressions of the last employed.
The majority of the devices engraved upon the matrixes (probably of wood) are in content testimonials certifying the king's pious services on behalf of the gods during his life on earth, and their further function was to enlist the protection of the gods for his tomb. In this respect, Professor Breasted also points out, the seals are identical in function with the great Papyrus Harris, which is a vast testimonial of the same kind. Moreover, these seals have a similarity to the Pyramid texts, with which they should be compared.
SEALS I - S
The small seals affixed to the sepulchral shrines shielding the king, the Canopic box, chests and other articles comprising the burial equipment, are impressions in relief, obtained from incised designs, on clay or Nile-mud made plastic with oil. The matrixes were engraved on some hard material like stone or metal and took either the form of signet-rings or ordinary signets. The impressions were obtained after the fashion followed today. They were affixed to the cord or strip of linen by which the object was secured. In some instances a counter-seal was employed implying corroboration of the sealing.
SEAL IMPRESSION (I) - long axis about 2.7 cms.
A recumbent figure of Anubis over nine Asiatic captives, surmounted by the prenomen of the king (of impression E). This seal was affixed with counter-seal (J) to the second and third sepulchral shrines shielding the king, and with counter seal (O) upon a wooden chest which, judging from the packing material left in its eight compartments, must
have contained vessels of both delicate and precious nature, for they were all stolen (see 315).
SEAL IMPRESSION (J) - long axis about 2.5 cms.
A recumbent figure of Anubis over nine captives; the first five captives are Asiatic and the lower four African (cf impression H): a device apparently belonging to the administration of the Necropolis. This seal was employed as a counter-seal to (I) on the second and third sepulchral shrines; and was fixed alone to the fastenings of the Canopic box (see 266b), as well as the chest and miniature coffins containing the mummies of two infants (see 317).
SEAL IMPRESSION (K) - long axis about 2.8 cms.
"The king beloved of the Mistress of the West", above nine captives. The races of the captives are not clearly defined. This seal was affixed to black shrine-shaped chests containing statuettes of the king (see 275 & 289), a wooden box the contents of which were stolen (see 279), and a nest of miniature coffins
containing a gold statuette of Amenhetep III. and a lock of hair of Queen Tyi (see 320).
SEAL IMPRESSION (L) - long axis about 2.8 cms.
A recumbent figure of Anubis over nine captives. The disposition of the nine captives differs from the customary three rows of three; it has an upper row of three Asiatics, a medial row of four Africans, and a lower row of two Asiatics. This seal was affixed to jewellery pertaining to the god Anubis stored in his pylon (see 261), to the black shrine-shaped chests housing statuettes of divinities, and kiosks housing shawabti-figures.
SEAL IMPRESSION (M) - long axis about 2.4 cms.
"Nebkheperure, ruler of Upper and Lower Egypt, son of Re, beloved of the Lord of On, Harakhte." This seal was affixed with counter seal (N) to a casket containing sixteen vessels of the king which were stolen (see 271), and a wooden box in which the king's
fan was found (see 272). Only two examples of this impression have survived.
SEAL IMPRESSION (N) - long axis about 2.2 cms.
A lion standing erect with its fore-paws upon an enemy, facing a crocodile. Its meaning is obscure: possibly it may be emblematic of the sovereign vanquishing an aggressive foe. It is remarkable for its delicacy of execution. The motive is Egyptian, yet the technique, like the shape of the oval, is strangely non-Egyptian. It recalls Mycenaean gem engraving.
This seal was affixed to a highly ornamented casket containing the king's jewellery (see 267), also a similar casket with four compartments for vessels which were stolen (see 268), an oval box which held sceptres and jewellery (see 269), an ordinary wooden box containing clothing and slippers of the king (see 270), a box containing a serpent and two hawk standards (see 283), and the inner miniature coffin that contained the lock of hair of Queen Tyi. It
was employed as a counter-seal to (M) on an ornamental casket (271) and a wooden box (272) mentioned above. Several broken pieces of impressions of this seal found lying on the floor of the Antechamber and the Annexe.
SEAL IMPRESSION (O) - long axis about 2.3 cms.
"King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Lord of the Two Lands, ..., beloved of Aten." This seal was employed as a counter-seal to (I) on a box (315) mentioned above. Fragments of about twelve impressions were found on the floor of the Treasury and Antechamber.
SEAL IMPRESSION (P) - long axis about 2.3 cms.
"King of the North and South, ..., great in provisions."
This seal was affixed to baskets containing foodstuffs (see 178, 178a, & 179). A large number of broken impressions were lying on the floor of the Annexe and in the Antechamber near the entrance of the Annexe.
SEAL IMPRESSION (Q) - long axis about 2.4 cms.
"The king as the earthly embodiment of the falco-god Horus." Two impressions of this seal were affixed to a black shrine-shaped chest housing figures of Dua-mutef and Qebeh-senuef (see 304). The workmanship of these figures of the two children of Horus was different to that of the other divinities found in similar black shrine-shaped chests secured with seal (L).
SEAL IMPRESSION (R) - fragment only, found on floor of Annexe.
SEAL IMPRESSION (S) - fragment only, found on floor of the Antechamber. This fragment shows two cartouches upon 'gold' signs. Only the prenomen of Ay is legible.
Breasted's report on seals.
Extract from letter from J. H. Breasted, dated 16th March 1923.
"I am enclosing also the seal material as far as one can go with it at this junction. The fact that the seal with the symbol of the skin on the pole (7), is found only on the door of the room containing two of these symbols, raises the question whether there is not some connection or relation between the seals and the contents of the chamber on the doors of which they are used. I have added notes and translations for all the seals."
The University of Chicago
The Oriental Institute
Office of the Director
Cairo, Jan. 15, 1923
I am sorry that our difficulties in getting settled in Cairo have delayed these materials you wanted. I enclose the copies of the four seals from the three doorways.
Since I left Luxor I have been thinking of another angle which may increase
the importance of Tutankhamon from an international point of view. You will
recall that the Amarna Letters are most of them addressed to:
These have been heretofore equated as follows:
Nimmuriya......Nb-ma'ct-Rc, or Amenhotep III
Napkhuriya.....Nfr-hprw-Rc, or Amenhotep IV.
Now it is obvious that the cuneiform Napkhuriya is a better equivalent of Nb-hprw-Rc, than of Nfr-hprw-Rc. In other words some of the Amarna letters may have been addressed to Tutenkhamon, and we may yet know more of his history than we do now. All the Napkhuriya letters must be examined anew to see if they can be made to fit chronologically and otherwise into the reign of Tutenkhamon. The splendor of his tomb certainly doesn't look like poverty and decay!
We have begun the Coffin Texts and find it a very hard task; but I will knock off for the trip to Luxor whenever I receive your telegram. I have forwarded the article I wrote for Harper's Magazine to Carnarvon, in order to avoid all misunderstanding or complication in the matter.
With all good wishes, I am
Very sincerely yours,
James H. Breasted
Address: Villa Mandofia,
Mr Howard Carter,
TAA i.3.22.73 recto
Above Amarna, Jan.3, 1923
My dear Carter:-
I know you must be up to your neck in work and my sole excuse for troubling you now is this. I have just received a cable from HARPERS MAGAZINE in New York, asking for an account of your remarkable discovery. Now Harpers is the oldest and best-known magazine in America, and is conducted on a high plane. A reliable account of your discovery ought to appear in a such a periodical in America. It is in the interests of research in Egypt a desirable thing for all of us that this should be done. It is by proper promulgation of Egyptian discovery, and especially this of yours, that funds for such study, and for the publication of such things as your beautiful plates of coloured hieroglyphs will be obtainable. In accordance with your permission to "write what I liked", I cabled Harpers I would do it.
Now of course they will need photographs, which they will publish with the finest modern skill. Whatever you would like to see published in this special way will do valuable missionary work. I will appreciate it if you will kindly authorize Burton to send me the prints you approve, with memorandum of expense-
TAA i.3.22.73 verso
Since seeing you I have been thinking further about the door seals. The additional seal with the insignia of the necropolis administration, which we found on the third (still unopened door), containing as it does also the cartouche of Tutenkhamon himself, is rather significant; for it shows beyond a doubt that his people were using the necropolis seal in making the original closure of the door. Hence the occurrence of this seal anywhere in this tomb is less likely to be post-Empire in date. It all fits in with the complete escape of this tomb from post-Empire destruction which overtook all the rest. It is the sole tomb that has so escaped. What magnificent luck that you should have found it! I feel like congratulating you all over again!
Greatly appreciating anything you can do in the way of photographs, and in keen anticipation of the great opening I am, with kindest regards, in which all the party join,
Very cordially yours
James H. Breasted.
Care Thos. Cook & Son,
We shall reach Cairo next Tuesday. Would be glad to find photographs awaiting me there, as they are needed at the earliest possible date.
(October 14, 2009)
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