Howard Carter's notes on various objects found in the tomb of Tutankhamun (TAA i.2.10)

This section:
Concept & Direction: Jaromir Malek
Scanning: Jenni Navratil
Transcription and editing: Cat Warsi, Andrew Hogan and Jaromir Malek
Coordination: Elizabeth Fleming

TAA i.2.10.1 = Letter from J. S. M. Rennie, of J. S. M. Rennie, Limited, to The Editor of the Illustrated London News concerning Egyptian slings. Scan and pdf file.

TAA i.2.10.2 = excerpt from an unidentified publication, not scanned or transcribed.

TAA i.2.10.3 = excerpt from Encyclopaedia Britannica, not scanned or transcribed.

TAA i.2.10.4

Notes Boxes.

493. Small Casket. 28x25x16 high
494. lid of do. Bears docket:- "The linen-chest of His Majesty, when he was a youth. What is in it: incense and gum."

594 Small Casket. 29x26x16 high.
575 lid of do. Bears docket:- "The ... (something of cloth) of Pharaoh when he was a boy. Gold/Thbs; a fan ...; a fan of the wab-priest; shatin of antimony; 3 grasshoppers of gold; 2 Bensu? ..."

Both these boxes have a framework of ebony and panels of ? cedarwood and are inlaid with ebony & ivory.
Note each have copper staples for suspension.

585. A wooden chest. of solid make; having many compartments and sliding drawers for knick-knacks
Size 65x33x27 high.
Had suffered very rough treatment. Sliding box like drawers wrenched open and broken by impatient hands, the valuable contents taken, While the remainder were left topsy-turvy some of the objects partly in & partly outside the box.
Contents: bracelets of ivory, wood and leather (Note one with animals including horse).
Small ivory gaming board (13.5x4.2x2.8 high).
Gold ornament Resembling decoration from harness.
Glass fruit bearing cartouche of Thothmes III

TAA i.2.10.5

585 Contents: - Fire stock and drill
Leather guards for wrists in archery.

547 Box for head gear, 50x40x40. Resembling a modern hat box.
Contents: Cap - (cloth with gold & natural stone bead work)
Head rest (wood gilt)
615. Lid of do. Bears docket: "What is in it. To wit:-

487. Box for (?) Cubic Measure. 65 x 4.7 x 5.6.

TAA i.2.10.6 verso

In each of the holes there was a thin coating of black material which was examined by Mr Lucas. The final residue which he obtained in the process of analysis was yellow resinous-looking and had a slight aromatic smell when warm and was almost certainly resin. This was used probably to promote friction and thus facilitate the creation of heat.

TAA i.2.10.7-11 = Upon older or ancestral objects found in Royal Tombs. Not scanned or transcribed.

TAA i.2.10.12

Notes faience vases

Many were found scattered among the objects, but the main group were found in a rough red box No 461.

469 Silver vase in the form of a pomegranate (H 13.4).
Dropped by the tomb plunderers.
The silver contains about 10% of gold.

TAA i.2.10.13


27. Calcite vessels, ranging from 18 to 67 cms in height, five of which date back to the reigns of Akhenaten and Smenkh-ka-Re, Amenhetep & Queen Tiye, and Thothmes III.
1. of serpentine
7. Ornamental Calcite Vases.

Total 35

TAA i.2.10.14

374. Serpentine.

Notes. Stone Vessels

339. (H. 67). Residue under handled surface still to view
340 (H. 53).
343. (H. 22.8).
344, 475 (H. 66.2).
353 (H. 37).
359. (H. 39.8).
421 (H. 18).
385 (H. 66). Tut-ankh-Amen.
404 (H. 35) Thothmes III
405. (H. 30). Bears an erased inscription showing cartouches of two kings (? Akhenaten and Smenkh-ka-Re) or Amenhetep III and IV.
407 (H. 44. Max diam 38).
408 (H. 29.5).
410 (H. 41.5). Thothmes III
423 (H. 22.5).
604 (H. 28).
448 (H. 26).
449 (H. 35.7).
479 (H. 20.8)
480. (H. 21).
482. (H. 42).
483 (H. 35.5). Amenhetep III (nomen erased & altered to prenomen).
485 (H. 20.5).
524 (H. 38.5).
583. (H. 36.8).
588. (H.41). Amenhetep III & Queen Tye. (Note nomen of Amenhetep erased & prenomen incised in its place).
603 (H. 27.7).

TAA i.2.10.15

374 (H. 22.3) of serpentine.

520 (H. 58.5). Highly ornamented crater upon tazza stand
Tut-ankh-Amen & Queen Ankh-es-en-Amen.

417. (H. 28.5) Double vase.

435 (H. 47.6). Crater with flanking ornament
Finger marks of thieves on interior walls.

420 (H. 25.8). Crater with open-work envelope.
Finger marks of thieves on interior walls.

360. (Max. H 68.3) Composite - unguent vase - of Hapi. On stand.

584. (Max L. 38.5) Ibex-vase.

579 (Max. H 60.0) Lion vase.
This vessel takes the form of a mythical lion standing upright on its hind legs in aggressive attitude which recalls the "Lion Guardant" of heraldry. One paw is clawing at the air in noble rage, while the other rests upon the symbol sa meaning 'protection'. It has a long tail annulated at its bulbous end in dark blue. The mouth of this monster is wide open with teeth and long protruding tongue of ivory. Its eyes gilt, & ears pierced for ear-rings. Fitted to the crown of the head is the 'neck-piece' of the vase in the form of a coronated lotus

TAA i.2.10.16

flower. The head and the body are hollow and thus act as a vase, now full of a dried blackened fatty substance, and which rests upon a trellis-work support resembling a small table.

578. A Centre ornament for Table in calcite. (L. of boat 58.3. Max H. 37). (L. of pedestal 48.5; W. 26.5; H. 30). (Max H. 66.8.).
An ornamental boat resting upon a pyloniform pedestal hollowed out to represent a lake.
It represents a carvel-built boat with round bottom, stem & stern rising in a curved line and terminating with the head of an ibex. Amidships a tall pavilion recalling the famous kiosk at Philae.
Facing forward, on the fore part of the deck, squats a figure of a nude girl. At the helm, steering the ship, is the figure of girl achondroplastic dwarf.

TAA i.2.10.17 and 18 = a short essay on alabaster vessels, not scanned or transcribed.

TAA i.2.10.19a

Carr Manor,


Dear Mr Carter
By the time this letter reaches you it will appear to be a very belated acknowledgement of your kindness in shewing us the Tomb, & its wonderful contents. We have all thought & talked of our morning with you, as one of the most interesting & impressive we have known. Lady Mackenzie said at lunch that she felt as though she had been in church all the morning! I think your reverence for everything greatly impressed us all.
On Thursday I had lunch with Lady C. & Eva & told them all our experiences with you, & of our examination of the specimens in Cairo.
There are two points which have been causing me a great deal of thought.
i. The foetuses. Do you think if they were female they would have been buried with the King? Would they not have been with the Queen? If you can have a section made by Ruffers method the sex should easily be determined. It is recognisable at a much earlier date than this. In the 3rd month the testes are in the iliae fossa.
ii. The little achondroplastic dwarf on the boat. This condition in a female is very rare. I have been looking through photographs & have only one of a woman. In every example in art (& there are many) there is not a single female so far as I can discover. The inward rotation of the feet, which you

TAA i.2.10.19b

told us was to be observed in Egypt, is so rare that I have never seen it in this country: & I am sure no such example is shewn by any artist. I have written to Sir R. Jones to ask him if he has ever seen a case. I think I have a record of almost every achondroplastic in Art from Saqqarah onwards, including Ptah & Bes in the British Museum. There is no example such as yours. That is quite unique.
I am re-reading your book, with added interest.
I really do feel that it is most fortunate that the tomb was discovered by one who has the artist's gifts & spirit. It has made all the difference. I confess I should like to see you put the two guardians back in the tomb, if the mummy is to remain there. They are so very striking & impressive & you could secure their permanence, & freedom from injury. Our little party agreed that you were in the highest class as a demonstrator - it was all wonderful.

With most faithful thanks

Ever sincerely

Berkeley Moynihan

TAA i.2.10.20

Notes Baskets

589 Round Basket (diam. 40).
338 Oval Basket (L. 45).
440A " " (L. 35).
616 " " (L. 22.)
357 Round Basket (diam. 19).
589a Bottle Shaped Basket (H. 26).

116 baskets oval baskets from 19 cms to 45 cms in length. A few round & these of bottle shape. Which contained many kinds of fruits & seeds, including grapes, the mandrake, nebbuk, & dom nuts

These baskets show by their symmetry the natural aptitude of the expert workmen. Some of the smaller & finer weaved baskets are adorned with patterns formed by interweaving stained with the natural grasses. Most of the coarser baskets are made of fibre 'skains' from the fruit-bearing stalks of the date palm, bound with fronds of the dôm-palm, or as in some cases the date palm, which were in all probability first soaked in water to render them both leathery and pliable. The fibre 'skains' were probably obtained by beating the date stalks with a mallet; a metal knife or clippers was possibly employed for cutting out material, and a bone or metal bodkin for drawing through the fronds when connecting the strands in building up the baskets.
The 'strakes' employed in the construction of theses baskets appear to have been exactly similar to those used today by native basket makers.

TAA i.2.10.21

Notes Re - Breakage of Objects.

(In the Annexe) Often the position of the broken pieces of an object (some quite minute fragments) in relation to the object itself suggested, if not actually proved, that much of the breakage was caused by the object having been thrown down in a careless manner, or, as possibly in some instances, by having had heavy objects dumped upon them. The scattered fragments were generally found in the near vicinity (as would occur in such cases) of the main portion or portions of the shattered object.

(In the Annexe but mostly in other Chambers) There was also evidence of another cause of breakage, and that by deliberate wrenching away the more valuable parts of an object. A great deal of this particular form of destruction, however, seems to have actually taken place in the Antechamber where many of the objects were taken for examination. For in that Chamber, either lying on the floor or in the boxes where they had been afterwards placed, were a number of fragments of objects that belonged and were found in the other Chambers.
For example see Nos. ...

TAA i.2.10.22

The Egyptians use wooden furniture carved and gilded, covered with incrustations, such as stools, chairs & beds, they also employed chests and coffers as receptacles for clothes, valuables and small objects generally.

Wood, ivory, semi-precious stones, glass, copper, bronze, silver and gold have been used from the most ancient times in the construction or for the decoration of furniture. However great the splendour of Egypt, however luxurious the life in those ancient days, the number of household appliances was more or less limited.
The stool, chair, bed and chest, were virtually the entire furniture of these early peoples. Whatever the degree of their station, and so they remained throughout the history of Ancient Egypt. People who spent their lives in the open air, going to bed in the early hours of darkness, and rising with the sun, needed but little household furniture. Chairs are for indoor life and that was the real influence upon the development of such a piece of furniture.

TAA i.2.10.23



We now turn to the interesting examples of the most varied and familiar article of domestic furniture, the chair.
Although the chair is of extreme antiquity, dating back as it does to the earliest dynasties, it may be remarked that for several millennia it remained solely an appanage of state and dignity.
It was not until quite late times in Europe that it became an article of general use. And as a relic of its former importance, tradition still holds "the chair" an emblem of authority.
Among the mass of Egyptian material that has survived the number of chairs is very limited; and the majority of these examples are certainly of seigneurial origin. In fact, with the ancient Egyptian the chair was the seat of privilege.
Since this Tomb is that of one who was in authority we find in its equipment no less than seven examples. But our knowledge of chairs until about this period (i.e. the New Empire) is almost entirely derived from the monuments, their mural bas-reliefs and paintings.
In this Tomb we find specimens of great richness and one might say splendour. They are fashioned of ebony and ivory; carved of a heavy wood and gilt; covered with costly metals, gold, silver, copper and bronze; incrusted with semi-precious stones and polychrome glass. Their outstanding feature is their

TAA i.2.10.24


lightness of make and yet solidity in regard to strength. It would seem that the Egyptians took particular care to embody those features in their construction. They, too, loved to make their chairs highly ornamental. In addition to all manner of forms, the legs they carved either of feline or of bovine form, they incorporated lion's or cheetah's heads, winged solar-discs, symbolical figures and devices utilizing symbolism both decoratively and constructively. The spaces between the structures that braced the frame-work of the legs, they filled in with various open-work designs - here in these examples generally with a traditional ornament most fit. "The unifying of the two Kingdoms" (i.e. Southern and Northern Egypt.). The larger areas, such as the back and arm panels, they filled up with carved or inlaid scenes of various subjects. The feet invariably capped and embellished with metal - often gold.
The Egyptian chairs were without upholstery - hence the elaborate and open-work carving. A seat or back cushion were alone customary, though obviously for some of these designs leather backs and seats were employed.

TAA i.2.10.25


Note The Throne
The suggestion that the gold inlaid chair was indeed nothing less than a throne is necessarily only hypothetical. There is nothing on the chair itself to tell us definitely. But judging from the extreme richness of its appearance when compared with the other chairs found in this tomb, as well as those of former discoveries, its very ornate almost florid decoration, which has been carried far, even to the detriment of comfort, shows it to be on an entirely different and higher level than the rest. In fact it seems appropriate only to a chair of state for a sovereign. The Aten form of the King's name which it bears together with certain indubitable ancient repairs, even palimpsests, clearly prove that it was made for a much earlier use than for mere sepulchral purposes. Again it is far too ornate for general everyday house use, which also suggests it was made for a special purpose.

TAA i.2.10.26


Notes Footstools
Footstools i.e. a low seat without back or arms may possibly be of more greater antiquity than chairs. They obviously came into use when need began to be felt for a more portable seat than heavy settees and benches - the chair was an appanage of rank and dignity to which no ordinary person dreamed of aspiring. Benches, settees and stools were for the ordinary use of everyday life. Possibly the three-legged stool was even before the four-legged article. And generally speaking the four-legged stool was a frame-stool - i.e., posts joined or framed together with mortice and tenon: the four legs braced together by stretchers. Hence, so far as their under-framing is concerned, such stools are probably of later invention and are to all intents and purposes, chairs.

(Encyclo. Britt. 25-96.)
"In France under the Ancient Régime, the stool or tabouret, acquired a social and courtly significance of the first importance. The wives of princes, dukes, and a few of the highest dignitaries of the realm alone had the right to occupy a tabouret in the presence of the king, and ladies who became widows used every expedience of intrigue to retain a privilege which they regarded as the summit of saintly felicity. The prise du tabouret, when a lady first took possession of her seat, was an occasion of considerable ceremony."

TAA i.2.10.27


Faldstool. Armless chair, of folding shape, for which leather was not infrequently used.
(Faldstool variety).
A fald-stool was originally a folding-stool used chiefly for ecclesiastical purposes. Eventually, while retaining the old name, it became rigid. The camp-stool is immediately derived from this original form of fald-stool.

Stretcher (cross-bar) intended to strengthen the under construction (connecting the four legs).
The Splats are of the construction of the back of a chair.

TAA i.2.10.28

the 'basket-hilt', which was made rigid by means of wire and in this case they were adorned with open gold-work ornament. The handle or 'grip' was packed with leather bound with string in order to insulate and prevent repercussion passing to the handle.
From scenes upon the Egyptian monuments depicting a kind of 'cudgel-play' or 'single-sticking', guards, cuts and parries appear to have formed at least part of the play, but a short stick bound to the left forearm was also used to ward off strokes not parried with the single-stick and which obviously served as a shield to ward off the adversary's blows.



370 FF. Stave of a composite bow, made up from strips of wood glued together; the belly composed of a gelatinous substance; the whole covered with bark.
L. 124cm. (Range from 124 to 111 cm in length)
370.KK. Stave of self bow (L. 72cms). (Range from 72 to 34 cms in length)


Bow strings made of twisted gut (four strands).


596.T. Stave of self bow (without bark covering) (67.5 long.).



370.NN. Group of 30 four fletched 'footed' arrows of slightly 'chested' pattern, i.e. the 'footed' shaft tapers from the beginning of 'foot' to 'pile' or point. Their length varies from 80.5 to 91.5 = average 86.5 cms. They are made

TAA i.2.10.29

as follows:- a tanged 'pile' of bronze; tapered and tanged hard wood foot; reed shaft fletched with four feathers and ending with a hardwood, ebony or ivory tanged 'nock'.
370.OO. A group of 9 four 'fletched' 'footed' arrows of slightly 'chested' pattern.
L. 87 cms.
Made in similar manner save the 'pile' is ivory the 'nocks' of ebony.
370.PP. A group of 3 four fletched footed arrows of slightly 'chested' pattern.
(L.84 cms) and of light make, of similar construction as above save the 'pile' & 'foot' of one piece of hard wood. The 'pile' bound & coloured.

370.QQ A group of 18 four fletched 'footed' arrows of 'chested' pattern.
L. from 81.5 to 88.5 cms = average 84.5 cms.
Of similar construction as above save 'pile' & 'foot' of one piece of hard wood & quite plain.

370.RR A group of 30 four fletched 'footed' arrows of 'chested' pattern.
L. 86.5 cms.
Of similar construction as above.
The 'pile' of bronze, leaf-shaped with tang.

370.SS. A group of 20 three 'fletched' footed arrows of chested pattern.
L. 70.5. Of same construction as above save the 'pile' is of blue glass cemented to the pointed end of 'foot' (note glass takes place of flint of earlier arrows).

TAA i.2.10.30 = insignificant notes, not transcribed.

TAA i.2.10.31

370.WW. A group of 10 three fletched 'footed' arrows of 'chested' pattern.
L. 58.5cms. With the exception of the smaller size, the blunt end to 'foot' & no 'pile', there are similarities to No. 370.SS. above.


370.TT. A group of 42 three fletched 'footed' arrows of 'chested' pattern.
L. 52.5 cms.
'Pile' tanged and of bronze, tapered hard wood foot with tang; shaft of reed, three fletched and ending with tanged hard wood 'nock'.
370.UU. A group of 30 four fletched 'footed' arrows of chested pattern.
L. 48.7 cms. They correspond, with exception of dimensions, with Nos. 370.RR.

370.VV. A group of 30 four fletched 'footed' arrows of 'chested' pattern
L. 49 to 52 cms = average 50.5 cms. They correspond to No. 370.QQ. with exception of smaller dimensions.

370.XX. A group of 3 three fletched 'footed' arrows of 'chested' pattern.
L. 57.5. Of similar construction as above.
Pointed & tanged bronze 'pile'.

370.YY. A group of 28 four fetched 'footed' arrows of 'chested' pattern
L. from 23 to 26.5 cms. = average 24.7. cms
They are made in similar manner - i.e. the 'pile', 'foot', 'shaft' and 'nock' (with exception of tapering - i.e. diminishing from 'nock' to 'pile') as groups 370 RR, 370 VV.

TAA i.2.10.32

370.ZZ. A single arrow only 14.5 cms length: corresponding to group 370.YY.


390. A group 13 four fletched 'self' arrows of parallel pattern.
Arrow L. 89. cms.
Pile of hard wood and tanged
Shaft of reed, having four feathers and 'nock' of horn.


596 U. A group of 5 footed arrows, 70 cms long, for type see 370 NN.

596 V. A group of 6 arrows, 64 cms long.
'Pile' & 'foot' of one piece of hard wood; 'nock' of wood.


585 CC. Bracers of leather for left arm.


585 Y. Plaited linen string strips


Note Boomerangs.


TAA i.2.10.33

Notes Chairs & Stools.

349. Small Chair. (Max H. of back 73; H. of seat 36.)

351 Faldstool (See notes).

467. Stool. (45 x 43 x 45 high.)

412. Stool. (three legged). (H.29. Max. w. 43.)
Legs of canine form.
Seat semicircular. Open-work incorporates two lions tied head to tail.
414, 442B, 592, 442E. Small foot stools, like throne for a child.

354. Hassock. (Diam. 29; H. 6.5).

457. Rush-work garden chair covered with painted papyrus.

TAA i.2.10.34

Game boxes.

345. Large game box (44.4 x 14.3 x 8.1)
383. Stand of do. (55 x 17.5 x 20.2 high 28 over all.)
Various parts of this game box were found scattered about the chamber and even portion in the Antechamber.


593. Medium sized game-box (27.5 x 9.0 x 5.8 high).
fallen to pieces.


293. Small ivory game box (See No 585R.). (13.4 x 4.0 x 2.8 high).
Found broken on floor in front of doorway, where it was thrown.


Notes re game: like the modern Arab game called "El tab el Seega"
throw of 'El Tabat'
1 white 3 black = Waled or tab = 1 plays again
2 " 2 " = Bint = 2 Stops
3 " 1 " = Bint = 3 "
4 " ___ = Wazir = 4 plays again
___ 4 " = Sultan = 6 " "

Waled or tab, Wazir and Sultan throw again, but both Benât stop and it is then the opponent's turn to throw.

Neither party can play until he has succeeded in throwing Waled or tab, as neither party can remove a playing piece from its original position but by throwing 'Waled or Tab' before each such removal - when a playing piece thus becomes mobile.

TAA i.2.10.35

Direction of moves


TAA i.2.10.36

See - Encyclopaedia Britannica, XIth Ed.; Vol. 28, p. 718

Note The secondary fermentation (i.e., after the main fermentation is finished, the young wine transferred to the casks (amphorae)) proceeds slowly and the carbonic acid formed is allowed to escape by way of the bung-hole, which in order to prevent undue access of air is kept lightly covered or is fitted with a water seal, which permits gas to pass out of the cask (amphora), but prevents any return flow of air. (Note holes for this purpose in the seals of the wine-jars).
During this secondary fermentation the wine gradually throws down a deposit which forms a coherent crust, known as argol or lees. This consists chiefly of cream of tartar (bitartrate of potash), tartrate of lime, yeast cells and of albuminous and colouring matters (note deposits in the amphorae).

It therefore becomes evident that the small holes made in the seals (? also those in the jars themselves plastered over) were made for the carbonic acid (formed during the secondary fermentation) to escape. And that deposit found on the bottom of the jars (proving they were stood in an upright position) are the lees. General shape of the dried lees <> pot

TAA i.2.10.37


406 A large pottery crater shaped jar which contains "kyllestes loaves" 620-(112) Cakes in shapes.


Wine Jars

Some 25 in number of <>-form, containing wines from Aten, Amen and Tutankhamen domains.
By far the larger quantity came from the Aten domain and date from the 3rd to 21st years.
The next in bulk were from the domain of Tut-ankh-Amen and date as late as the 9th year
The least of all are apparently from the domain of Amen and are dated year 1.
They appear to be all delta wines, from the west branch of the river, one of the Aten domains even mentions Kantareh.


About a dozen others are of Syrian form, which by being of a fragile nature were mostly broken. Not one of this type bore any docket so it was impossible to say whether the wine was Egyptian or foreign Syrian - though the jars are of Syrian form the ware I believe to be Egyptian.


TAA i.2.10.38

The falchion - with a curved blade, belongs to the XVIIIth - XX dyns - (Encyclo. Brit. XI. Ed. p. 69.)


Falciform = sickle-shaped (Oxford dic.)


Falchion = Broad curved convex-shaped sword
Lat. falx = sickle (Oxford Dic.)


Scimitar = Oriental curved sword usually broadening towards point.
Persian - Shimshir (Oxford Dic.).


Wilkinson. I. p. 213.
A species of ensis falcatus (vide Chabas, 'Études' p. 93)
"...The resemblance of its form and name to the KOPIS of the Greeks, suggests that the people of Argos, an Egyptian colony, by whom it was principally adopted, originally derived that weapon from the falchion of Egypt." "... borne by light as well as heavy armed troops; and that such a weapon must have inflicted a severe wound is evident, as well from the size of the blade as from the great weight it acquired by the thickness of the back, ..."
"Officers as well as privates carried the falchion; and the king himself is frequently represented in close combat with the enemy, armed with it, or with ..." (over)

TAA i.2.10.39

"A simple stick is more usually seen in the hand of officers commanding corps of infantry, though we cannot thence infer that they were not always provided with some other more efficient weapon; ..."

TAA i.2.10.40

577. Kherp (hrp) - Sceptre. (L. 54).


596a (Stock of fan) Fan-stock (L. 104). Of gold
415. " " (L. 54.) Of ivory.
600. " " (L. 70) Wood with marquetry decoration.



620-59. Leather-workers implement (cf. P.E.N., Life of Rekhmara, pls XVII, XVIII)



582a. Scimitar (L.59.5 23½ ins.; thickness 9/16 in. 1.4).
Heavy bronze scimitar; blade and handle plate cast in one piece, the handle having side plates of wood. A weapon more fitted for 'crushing' than for 'cutting' the edge of the blade being only partially developed.
620-(52) " (L.41 16 ins.; " 0.45 3/16 in.)

582 C to I Single-sticks.
A slender round stick, ranging from 60 to 95 cms. long, thicker at one end than the other and was used apparently as a weapon of attack and defence. In contradistinction to the modern form of the single stick the thicker end of the weapon formed the point end, was ferruled with metal, and the thinner end the handle. Protection for the hand was furnished by a leather 'guard' somewhat like

TAA i.2.10.41 = insignificant notes, not transcribed.

TAA i.2.10.42

Boomerang, a missile weapon.
Two main types may be distinguished:-
(a) The Return boomerang; (b) the non-return war boomerang.
The general form of both weapons is the same. They are sickle-shaped, and made of wood, so modelled that the thickness is about 1/6th of the breadth, which again is 1/12th of the length, the length varying from 6 in (15 cms) to 3 (91.3 cms) or 4 (122 cms) feet.


The Return boomerang, which may have two straight arms at an angle from 70o to 120o, but in Australia is always curved at an angle of 90o or more, is usually 2 to 3 ft in length (i.e. 61 - 91 cms) and weighs some 8 oz.
The arms have a skew, being twisted 2o to 3o from the plane running through the centre of the weapon, so that B and D are above it; A and E below it; the ends AB and DE are also to some extent raised above the plane of the weapon at C.



The cross section is asymmetrical, the upper side (in the figure) being convex, the lower flat or nearly so; this must be thrown with the right hand.
The non-return boomerang has a skew in the opposite direction but is otherwise similar.


The non-return type may also be made to return in a nearly straight line by throwing it at an angle of 45o, but normally it is thrown like the return type, and will then travel an immense distance.

TAA i.2.10.43


488A. Max. L. 74. Max w. 50.5.
566 Max. L. 73.5. Max. w. 51.5.

379a. Max L. 89. Max w 54.


TAA i.2.10.44


Notes - Archery = Bows and arrows.

2-363. Amongst the great peoples of ancient history the Egyptians were the first and the most famous of archers, relying on the bow as their principal weapon in war and in the chase. As a weapon of the chase the bow was in its various forms employed even more than in war; however it must have had immense military value.
Their bows were somewhat shorter than a man - varying from:

their arrows varied between in length.
Heads of arrows were of wood, of flint, bronze and glass.

Use by Israelites - see Gen. XLVIII, 22; XXI, 20.

The Cretans supplied Greek armies with the bowmen required. Rüstow and Köchly (Geschichte das griechischen Kriegwesens, p. 131) estimate the range of the Cretan bow at eighty to one hundred paces, as compared with sling-bullets forty or fifty, and the javelins thirty to forty.

The Romans as a nation were, equally with the Greeks, indifferent to archery; in their legions the archer element was furnished by Cretans and Asiatics.

The Persian, Scythian, and Parthian bow was far more efficient than the Cretan, though the latter was not wanting in the heterogeneous armies of the East.

TAA i.2.10.45


The Egyptians used the bow and arrow in chariots from whence they seemed to have shot equally well as on foot, and for defense against arrows both shields and leather cuirasses were emplyed.

In England which became the country of archers par excellence at the time of Edward III, the long-bow was about 150 cms (5 ft), and its shaft 90 cms long. Shot by a Welsh archer, a shaft penetrated an oak door 4 in. thick and the head stood out a hand's breadth on the inner side (at Abergavenny in 1182).
Drawn to the right ear, the long-bow was naturally capable of long shooting, and in Henry VIII's time practice at a less range less than one furlong was forbidden.
See p. 9
The long-bow in rapidity was the equal of the short-bow and the superior of the crossbow, which weapon, indeed, it surpassed in all respects.
Yew was by far the superior for bow-staves, but bowyers (maker, seller, of bows) employed also wych-hazel, ash, or elm. Apparently only the best and most useful men possessed yew-bows.

Fletchers, arrow makers; Fletch, to feather an arrow.

The long-bow, an incomparably fine weapon, endured as one of the principal arms of ...

The rapidity of consecutive shots averaged up to 4 to five a minute.

TAA i.2.10.46


Toxophilite - (student, lover) of archery. Hence toxophilitic.


The (long) bow - the length of the bow does not vary much, though it bears bears some relation to the length of the arrow, and the length of the arrow to the strength of the archer, to which the weight of the bow has to be adapted.
The so-called proper weight of a bow is the number of lbs. which, attached to the string, will draw a full length arrow to its head. Estimating 50 lb. as a fair average (for a man),
2.4 of length of bow
such a bow would be 185.4 cms for a 76 cms arrow
182.7 " " " 71 " "
180.3 " " " 68.5 " ",
2.6 of length of bow
but the height as well as the strength of the archer to be considered. Similarly a lady's bow on the average measures 167.5 cms. and her arrows 63.5 cms.

Modern bows are either made entirely of yew (occasionally of other woods - see above), when they are called "self-bows", or of a combination of woods, when they are called "backed -bows".
Self-bows are rarely or never made in a single stave, owing to the difficulty of obtaining fine and flawless wood of the necessary length; hence two staves joined by a double fish-joint, which forms the centre of the bow, are used, tested and adjusted so that they may be as equally elastic and formable.
The best yew wood is allowed to season for three years before it is made into a bow, which again is not used till it is two years older. - (This process would in a climate like Egypt be shorter).

TAA i.2.10.47


In backed-bows the belly, the rounded part nearest the string, is generally but not necessarily made of yew, the back, or front part, of yew (the best), hickory, lance or other woods, glued together in strips.
4.1 of the bow
The centre of the bow, for about 45 cms, should be stiff and resisting, then tapering off gradually, to the horns in which the string is fitted, the greatest care being taken that the two limbs are uniform.

The bow of self-yew is generally considered more agreeable to handle and has a better "cast", throwing the arrow more smoothly and with less jar. On the other hand, "crysals" (tiny cracks, which are apt to extend) are more frequent in this class of bow.

The self-bow is more sensitive than other bows, and its work is mostly done during the last few inches of the pull, where the backed-bow pulls evenly throughout.

The backed-bow should be perfectly straight in the back, but after use often loses its shape either by "following the string", i.e. getting bent inwards on the string-side, or by becoming "reflex" (bending the opposite way).

Self-bows are even more apt to lose their shape than backed-bows, as there is no hard wood to counteract the grain.

TAA i.2.10.48


A bow that is strongly reflexed at the end is known as a "Cupid's bow".
To form the handle the wood of the bow is left thick in the centre, and hair, leather or india rubber is wound round it to give it a better grip.

(See over.)

TAA i.2.10.49


Parts of the stave of a bow: -
'The handle', or 'grip' = (the thickest part in the centre).
'The centre' = (about ¼ of the length of the bow, stiff and resisting).
'The back' = (the front side furthest from the string).
'The belly' = (the round string side)
'The limb' = (two uniform upper + lower limbs forming the stave, joined by double fish-joint in the centre of the bow (the handle or grip)
'The horns' (to which the string is fitted).

The Stave
the back
the centre
the handle or grip
the back
the belly
the string
the upper & lower limbs (joined together in the centre of the bow)
the horns

The Self-bow - made entirely of self-wood (i.e. one kind of wood).
The Backed-bow - made of combination of woods glued together in strips.

TAA i.2.10.50


The string and stringing - The string is made up of three strands of hemp dressed with a preparation of glue, and should be perfectly round, smooth and non frayed, as a broken string may result in a broken bow.
The string, at its center is 15.3 cms from the belly of a man's bow; 12.7 cms in the lady's bow. The clenched fist with thumb upright was the old, rough and ready estimate, known as "fist-mele". For a few cms. above and below the nocking point the string is lapped (surrounded, encircled) with carpet thread to save it from fraying by contact with the arm; the nocking point being made by another lapping of filoselle silk, so that the string may exactly fit the nock of the arrow. When the bow is properly strung the string should be longitudinally along the middle of the belly.
from 15.3 to 12.7 cms (= 'fist mele').
'nock' (lapped with filoselle silk)
lapping with carpet-thread to save fraying by contact with arm

TAA i.2.10.51


Arrows and nocking - the parts of the arrow are the shaft, the "nock" or notch <>, the "pile" or point, and the feathers. The shaft is made of a seasoned red deal, and may be "self" or "footed". Most arrows are "footed", i.e. a piece of hard wood to which the pile is attached is spliced to the deal shaft, which should be perfectly straight and stiff. The shaft is made in several shapes.
"Parallel" pattern(1) ((1) Generally preferred.) - the shaft being the same size from nock to pile.
"Barrelled" pattern - the shape being thick in the centre and tapering toward the ends.
"Bob-tail" pattern - diminishes from the pile to the nock.
"Chested" pattern - tapers from the middle to the pile.

The pile should not be taper but cylindrical, "broad shouldered" where the point begins.
The nock is cut square. (see p. 9)
There are three feathers, the body feathers of a turkey or peacock being the best. They should all curve the same way, and about 3.7 cms. long and 1.3 cms. deep, with the ends near the nock either square, or balloon-shaped.

"pile" or point
'footed' shaft
"Chested" pattern

TAA i.2.10.52


Other implements in connection with archery.
The archer uses finger-tips, or a "tab" of leather, to protect the finger against the string, and a leather "bracer" to protect the left arm from its blow.


With a fairly heavy bow, say 60 lb. or 63 lb., and a long light arrow, known as a "flight-arrow", a good archer should be able to reach 300 to 310 yds. With a heavier bow, properly under control, 50 to 60 yds. might be added to this by a strong man.


Aspen wood (Populus tremula) in medieval days was valued for arrows, specifically for their use in target practice.


The 'nock' or notch of an arrow

Egyptian =


'nock' of arrow
tang of 'nock'.
section of reed.

Egypt arrow-heads
Their bronze arrow-heads ('pile') appear at an early date; under the Empire they are stouter and furnished with a tang, and later still, towards the Greek period, they are socketed (often three-sided).


The possessor of the bow and arrow could bring down the fleetiest animal and could defend himself against his enemy.
Slow searching rain of arrows would be a formidable thing to march against.

TAA i.2.10.53, TAA i.2.10.54 and TAA i.2.10.55 = excerpts from Encyclopaedia Britannica, not scanned or transcribed.

TAA i.2.10.56


Arms and Armour

Offensive weapons may be classified roughly, according to their shape (i.e. the kind of blow or wound which they are intended to inflict), and the way in which they are used, as follows: -
(1) Arms which are wielded by hand at close quarters, subdivided into
(a) cleaving weapons, e.g. axes.
(b) crushing, e.g. club, maces and all small hammer-like arms
(c) thrusting, e.g. pointed swords and daggers.
(d) cutting, e.g. sabres (such weapons frequently combine both the cut and the thrust, e.g. swords with both edge and point).
(e) those weapons represented by the spear, lance, pike, etc., which deal a thrusting blow but are distinguished from (c) by their greater length.
(2) Purely missile weapons, e.g. darts, javelins, and spears. Frequently these weapons are used also at close quarters as thrusting weapons; the typical example of these is the medium-length spear of not more than about 6 ft. in length.
(3) Arms which discharge missiles, e.g. bows, catapults, and fire-arms generally.

The weapons (2) and (3) are designed to avoid hand-to-hand fighting.

TAA i.2.10.57


Spear-heads and arrow-points.
Leaf-shaped <>
Lozenge-shaped <>
Tanged, i.e. projection to fit into handle or shaft.
Triangular. <> section
Some have barbs

<> leaf-shaped bronze sword of the Bronze Age. The handle plate and blade were cast in one piece, and the handle itself was formed by side plates of ... There was no guard, and the weapon, though short, was well balanced but more fitted for stabbing and thrusting than for cutting with the edge.


Arrow points of flint were equally effective as bronze-points and certainly much more easily replaced when lost.


TAA i.2.10.58


The penetrating power of Egyptian bows and arrows is well illustrated in a discovery by Mr. H. E. Winlock of a soldiers' tomb of the Eleventh Dynasty at Deir El Bahari (Western Thebes), which contains some sixty men slain in battle (Bulletin, Met. Mus. of Art; The Egyptian Expedition, 1925-1927; pub. Feb 1928; p. 12 ff.; figs. 17, 20, and 21). The dried and shrivelled skin of the partially mummified bodies of those men show numbers of arrow wounds such as would have been received from a height. Some have parts of the arrows actually sticking in them. Several of those arrows, coming apparently from above, struck the men at the base of the neck and penetrated downward the chest. Another which entered the upper arm passed down the whole length of the forearm to the wrist. And one of the men, hit in the back under the shoulder blade, had his heart transfixed by an arrow which projected some some eight inches out in front of his chest. The range at which these wounds were effected is of course unknown, neither is there any record of the type of bow used by the defenders, but the fragments of the arrows found in the bodies of the men show the arrows to have been of the 'chested' pattern, 'footed' with ebony, having blunt-ends without 'piles' - cf. Nos. 370 - ... Mr. Winlock mentions further that arrows belonging to the same period and found in the same locality as the tomb of the soldiers, are of the 'chested' pattern, 'footed' with ebony to which a chisel-shaped flint 'pile' was connected. Then triple-fletched shafts are of reed

TAA i.2.10.59

and have the 'nocks' of wood tanged like the ebony foot - cf. Nos. 370 - ...

TAA i.2.10.60 = insignificant note, not transcribed

TAA i.2.10.61

376 Rough wooden box, thrown on top of objects (see photo 1137) - lid found separately somewhere in the chamber.
(L.58.5 X W.40, H. 37.5 cms.)
Many objects had been thrown had been thrown helter-skelter into this box - this presumably by the officials when supposed to clean the tomb up after the robbery.
In it were:-
376a. Two portions of a portable pavillion
b. Plaited green sandal.
c. A small round basket of grapes and dates.
d. Portion of a violet faience vase.
e. A much deteriorated scarf of gossamer like linen.
F. A pair of gloves.
G. Some faience rings in pith.
H. A twig of a plant.
I. Robe L. 125 W. 82.
J. Robe with sleeves L. 113.5 W. 95 (sleeves 36 long.)
K. Small cartouche-shaped box.
L, M, N, Palettes one of glass.
O. Boomerang.
P. Frag. of ornament from casket No. 403.
R. 14 violet faience fore legs of bovine animal
Q. 19 blue " " " " " These models include the metacarpal bones, sesamoids, pastern and cloven hoof.

TAA i.2.10.62


Robes of Dalmatic Type


Notes Robes Nos 367, i and j.

Two official or state garments of the character of priestly robes, which recall the dalmatic vestment worn by deacons and bishops of the Christian Church and by kings and emperors at coronation.
Unfortunately the condition or rather preservation of these garments was far from what could be desired. They were crumpled up and bundled into a box with a whole lot of ill-assorted objects. Their fabric too was much deteriorated from the infrequent saturations from humidity the tomb had suffered. In their pristine state they must have been gorgeous pieces of colour. They took the form of a long loose linen vestment, having down the sides richly ornamented tapestry woven borders and a broad hem at the bottom of similarly woven ornaments and with fringe. The opening for the neck and at the chest were adorned with richly woven pattern. One of the vestments with field plain, has narrow sleeves like the tunicle and needlework representing animals and floral design applied to its broad hem at the collar; the other, having the whole field woven with coloured rosettes, emblazoned with figures of flowers and cartouches across the chest, has a collar band with outstretched wings for a collar and a double row of titulary woven down the front.
Fragments of a similar garment belonging to the Pharaoh Amenhetep II was found in the tomb of Thothmes IV, and from that fact it may be inferred that these garments were traditional robes, common to the pharaohs, worn probably on special occasions as religious rites, solemn consecration or coronation, and that they may be robes symbolical of joy, very much in the manner of the dalmatic placed upon a deacon when conferred the holy order, whereby the

TAA i.2.10.63

Fragment of a garment of the Sultan Baybars 13th century A.D.

TAA i.2.10.64


following words are repeated by the acting bishop: "May the Lord clothe thee in the tunic of joy and the garment of rejoicing." Moreover, these robes seem to be no less than prototypes of the Roman garment whence the liturgical vestment (the Dalmatic) of the Christian church derives. Similar garments were in use in Egypt during the Egypto-Roman Period (1st - 4th centuries), and Professor Newberry has a portion of such a garment also of woven linen dating from Arab times (... AD) which is almost identical in treatment of design with the fragment of the robe of Amenhetep II (15th century B.C.) found in the tomb of Thothmes IV.

TAA i.2.10.65

Great Care





The ancient Egyptians obtained their fire by rotating rapidly a piece of suitable wood (the fire-stick) in a round hole in a stationary piece of wood (the fire-stock) appropriate for the purpose. For this they applied the principle of the bow-drill with which they were so familiar. The rotation was effected by means of a bow alternately thrust forwards and backwards, the thong of which having been first wound round the stock of the drill in which the fire-stick was fixed. In order to steady the drill the upper end was held in a socket (drill-head) either of stone, ivory, ebony, or sometime the kernel of a dome-nut, which when cut in halves formed a ready-made drill-head. The round holes in which the fire stick was rotated were made near the edges of the fire-stock, so that a vertical slot was created on the side of the fire-stock which allowed the spark created to have free access to the tinder. (1)

TAA i.2.10.66

See Specimens: 389, 415,
(<> Ideogram or determinative in <> hw 'fan'.)
(Ideogram in <>, var. Pyr. <> šwt 'shadow', 'shade'. Ideogram or determinative in <> sryt '(military) standard'.

600. Fan.
An attribute of royalty.
Both long and short feather fans were carried in state processions on the right & left side or behind the Pharaoh.
48 feathers. i.e. 24 on each side
It appears that the shafts of the feathers had been stripped of their 'vanes' for a short distance above the quills: this causing a short interval of bare shafts - like radii - around the wooden palmate portion of the fan into which the quills of the feathers were fixed, which resembles much the radiating framework (sticks) of a modern folding fan.

<> 'Mount' with barbs and barbule of the vanes intact
Ostrich feathers
Radiating shafts
'Palmate' portion (of wood)
'Capitulum' in the form a papyrus umbel statices
Stem, handle, or 'shaft' (of wood)
'Knob' of handle inverted umbel of papyrus or 'Corolla & Calice' of the lotus flower.

TAA i.2.10.67


Samples of the following minerals
1. Natural orpiment (i.e. yellow sulphide of arsenic).
2. Yellow ochre.
3. Red ochre.
4. Veins of oxide of iron that occurs in the Nubian sandstone.
5. Blue artificial frit.
6. Oxide of tin.
7. Galena.

620-(40-42) faience bracelets of Akhenaten, Smenkh-ka-Re


620-66 Large quantity of faience rings, which include the names of Tut-ankh-Amen, Ankhes-en-Amun and many decorative designs.


620-51 Small bronze dog, finely chased. Represented seated on hind-quarters; head turned to left over back, drooping ears, mouth open panting, hair on points and dorsal-line, tail fairly long. (H. 1.7).


620 Among labels are mentioned: (96) 'adornment of the linen ..., of His Majesty, when he was a youth'; (100) 'head rests of His Majesty'; 'fine Upper Egyptian cloth'; and (109) ... materials 'received from the Servant ...'

TAA i.2.10.68
This is part of an early draft of Chapter iii, The Annexe of The Tomb of Tut.ankh.Amen, iii, pp. 98-108


The Annexe was intended for a store-room for costly oils and unguents, wine and food, but an overflow of every kind of chattel belonging to the funerary paraphernalia had been packed on top of its contents proper.
The system we had to adopt to remove the two-hundred and eighty odd jumbled objects was as follows: sufficient floor-space had to be freed for our feet. This had to be done the best we could, head downwards, from the sill of the doorway, which was more than a metre above the floor-level of the chamber. During this and the rest of the operation every precaution had to be taken, lest a hasty movement might cause an avalanche of antiquities precariously heaped high up beyond our reach. Often to remove an object, sometimes of heavy nature, which the slightest disturbance might cause to fall, we were obliged to lean over with the support of a rope sling under our arm pits, held by men in the antechamber. In this manner, gradually removing material within reach, we eventually gained ingress. But throughout the operation, we had numbered and photographed the objects immediately accessible before they were touched.
The space immediately below the sill was occupied by missiles in the form of bent-sticks like boomerangs, alabaster jars, baskets of fruits, mingled with fallen stones from the masonry that had blocked the doorway and been forced in by the thieves: on top of all being a black wooden kiosk full of stone shawabti-figures. Stretching across the whole of this chamber, from the door to the northern end, was a mass of baskets of all shapes and heavy alabaster

TAA i.2.10.69
This is part of an early draft of Chapter iii, The Annexe of The Tomb of Tut.ankh.Amen, iii, pp. 98-108


vases, heaped indiscriminately one upon the other, with sundry boxes and bedsteads on top. Beneath these were numerous small objects mostly crushed and broken: small inlaid boxes, bead-work, tiny faience and a few gold and silver vessels, amulets, model tools, stone palettes, samples of minerals and colours, ivory gaming boards, playing pieces, sandals, toys, all constituting indisputable testimony of devilism on the part of persons responsible for such a state of things. Whence came all these miniature objects is a problem we have yet to solve. They were ominous that most of the boxes in front of us would be practically if not entirely empty.
However, in an ornamental table-shaped box, lodged on the top of these miscellanea, were four perfect head-rests of the most fragile nature: one of turquoise-blue glass; the second of blue faience; a third of beautifully carved ivory, representing one of the heavenly deities, Shu, the supporter of the heavens, who raised from earth the sky; and a fourth, in the form of a small folding stool, also of ivory and having heads of the god Bes. An unfortunate fall would have caused the box to dislodge, and these magnificent specimens might have fallen over and smashed into a hundred fragments.
Stacked above this table-shaped box were the remains of several rush-work seats, thrown upon them being a gilt wooden shawabti-figure. Though much of the rush-work was painted, it was beyond recovery, it fell to pieces at a touch.
Across the northern end of the chamber, poised upon a heap of boxes, baskets and jars, were two large bedsteads:

TAA i.2.10.70
This is part of an early draft of Chapter iii, The Annexe of The Tomb of Tut.ankh.Amen, iii, pp. 98-108


one much broken, the other covered with thick sheet gold, fortunately in fair condition. The boxes beneath and behind these bedsteads were empty, save one which contained a barbar's dummy, on which was a kind of head-dress in the form of a skull-cap, made of gold, lapis lazuli, and turquoise beads worked upon a linen basis. The dummy that had been fixed to the centre of the box, was knocked over, the cap fallen in a heap in the corner of the box and the fabric perished.
Among the other boxes was a maginificent casket of ivory veneer carved in relief and stained. This beautiful specimen of workmanship, bearing a picture of the King and Queen among bowers of flowers, though much damaged can be discovered. The lid was lying in one corner of the chamber, while the rest with legs broken was found in the opposite corner.
Lying on the floor and leaning against the wall were numbers of wine-jars, more baskets, the lids of boxes, the cabin of a model boat, and the broken foot-end of a bedstead.
It may be here interpolated that not improbably the wine-jars had been stacked at this end of the chamber, the alabaster vessels coming next, with the baskets & furniture on top of all. Further than this there was practically nothing to lead us to any intelligent conception of the original order, if any!
Leaving the north end we now turn our attention to the southern part, to the left of the doorway. Here, we must admit, we expected to find better results, but although perhaps there were a greater number of fine objects, the wreckage was equally deplorable. The mass of material

TAA i.2.10.71
This is part of an early draft of Chapter iii, The Annexe of The Tomb of Tut.ankh.Amen, iii, pp. 98-108


reached a height of six feet. The whole being largely presented from sliding down by a long white case full of wooden missiles, reaching transversely across the chamber. But on the lid of this case were the dirty foot-prints of the last intruder clearly shown in the photograph.
Resting on the top of this heap of material was a third bedstead; in the south-east corner two chairs, one a particularly fine example of the Amarna craft, inlaid with ebony and ivory to represent animal skins; beside it was its companion stool. Underneath these were alabaster vases, model boats, and a hassock covered with bead-work of striking design. Below the bedstead was a red box with broken bottom and bulging sides; through the apertures of which a tightly wedged mass of faience libation vases was visible. To remove these vessels was difficult, since when the piece was extricated the others began to fall. At such moments the need of more than the usual complement of hands is felt. Under the box was model boat in translucent alabaster standing upon a pedestal in imitation of a shallow pond. The rising stern and stern piece of the boat terminate in ibex heads, amidships an open pavillion, on the fore deck a kneeling woman with a flower, and aft the well modelled figure of a dwarf. Next to this was an alabaster vase, in shape a lion, and next again another amusing alabaster vessel in the form of a recumbent ibex.
Between these objects and the south wall was a miscellaneous collection of boxes; a white folding couch; over these shawabti-kiosks spilling out their contents; poles of a movable pavillion; sword-sticks; a unique bronze scimitar; and some shields. One of the boxes contains a cuirass of leather scales; another box, full of elaborate implements, held ...
It may be that this end of the chamber was utilized for the overflow of the funerary equipment described, which did not necessarily belong to the Annexe.

TAA i.2.10.72
This is part of an early draft of Chapter iii, The Annexe of The Tomb of Tut.ankh.Amen, iii, pp. 98-108


With regard to the problem of the indiscriminate confusion of every article without exception in this Annexe, far more than in any of the other chambers, there is an interesting point that deserves notice. It is in connection with the numerous alabaster vessels. These vessels, remarkable for their size and diversified shapes, and which we may safely affirm belong to this room, bear witness to another form of pilfering other than that of metal-robbing. From the residue found in the bottom of three vessels, they appear to have contained ... They had at one time been closed with stone lids or stoppers that were sealed and bound with rushes to the rims and necks. With one exception, the covering had been removed, thrown aside, and the contents of the jars taken. Now, although there is practically no doubt that the metal robbers were responsible for a great deal of the disarrangement brought about when ransacking the boxes for their quarry, pillage such as the contents of these jars can hardly be charged against them. One cannot easily conceive sufficient reason for the metal-robbers to have disturbed these jars, nor would one suspect their bringing, when hunting for metal, vessels to take away the liquids, the quantity of which must have been by no means inconsiderable. It implies some other kind of thing. It leads one to suspect some other persons, even perhaps minor officials, who had obtained acccess to the chambers before the

TAA i.2.10.73
This is part of an early draft of Chapter iii, The Annexe of The Tomb of Tut.ankh.Amen, iii, pp. 98-108


subsequent closing of the tomb. And since, as in all probability, these heavy vessels were on the floor, under the objects of higher nature, those persons may have been responsible for much of the indiscriminate confusion. If as surmised the various other chattels were stacked on top, they must have been displaced to get at the heavily laden vessels underneath. From our experience in the other chambers, the metal-robbers only opened and ransacked the boxes and broke objects bearing gold, silver, and bronze, the remainder were left untouched; here everything was disturbed, mostly broken, and there was no attempt to tidy up the chamber.
The possibility of a case such as that put forward should not be lost sight of, and it it would clear up another problem which has been a puzzle since the beginning of the discovery. It has always been an enigma, why a number of ordinary stone vessels - ceramic pots, etc., in themselves of no intrinsic value - were found empty and scattered around the tomb, even along the hole tunnelled through the filling of the passage!
In the absence of a better explanation, may one not provisionally connect the plundering of the liquids in the alabaster vessels, with that of the smaller stone vessels in the other chambers, and that by persons other than the well known metal-robbers.
Another point worthy of mention is that although many of the pottery wine-jars were broken, there was no evidence of the wine having been stolen. Moreover, it is

TAA i.2.10.74
This is part of an early draft of Chapter iii, The Annexe of The Tomb of Tut.ankh.Amen, iii, pp. 98-108


doubtful whether wine stored in porous jars, such as these, would have remained good after two or more years. The breakage that occurred is more likely to have been the result of rough handling when moving the adjacent heavy stone vessels.

That some person or persons were present in the tomb subsequent to the robbing of the contents of the stone and pottery vessels (? the necropolis officials when attempting to straighten out things) is proven by the fact that many small objects were found in the interior of those vessels. These objects were not in least soiled by the contents of the vessels showing that they had been put or thrown there after the vessels were emptied.

TAA i.2.10.75

Notes Re: arts, crafts and design.

The plants that adorned the marshes, the river banks, the fields, gardens, canals, and canal banks, attracted the attention of those ancient Egyptian craftsmen, who took fully into account their nature, structure and beauty of external form. These they conventionalized into useful form and used them for their decorative art and craft. So, too, did the Egyptians use other natural forms: such as the heavenly bodies, the vulture & hawk, the cobra, and the scarab-beetle, etc., in which they found both decorative qualities and symbolism.

TAA i.2.10.76
This is the beginning of a draft of Chapter v, The Main Cause of Deterioration and Chemical Changes among the Objects in the Tomb of The Tomb of Tut.ankh.Amen, iii, approximately pp. 151 [2nd paragraph] to 152 [upper]. Not transcribed here.

TAA i.2.10.77
Continuation of a draft of Chapter v, The Main Cause of Deterioration and Chemical Changes among the Objects in the Tomb of The Tomb of Tut.ankh.Amen, iii, approximately pp. 152 [upper] to 153 [lower]. Not transcribed here.

TAA i.2.10.78
Continuation of a draft of Chapter v, The Main Cause of Deterioration and Chemical Changes among the Objects in the Tomb of The Tomb of Tut.ankh.Amen, iii, approximately pp. 153 [lower] to 154 [bottom]. Not transcribed here.

TAA i.2.10.79
Continuation of a draft of Chapter v, The Main Cause of Deterioration and Chemical Changes among the Objects in the Tomb of The Tomb of Tut.ankh.Amen, iii, approximately pp. 154 [bottom] to 155 [bottom]. Not transcribed here.

TAA i.2.10.80
Continuation of a draft of Chapter v, The Main Cause of Deterioration and Chemical Changes among the Objects in the Tomb of The Tomb of Tut.ankh.Amen, iii, approximately pp. 158 [lower] to 159 [upper]. Not transcribed here.

TAA i.2.10.81
Continuation of a draft of Chapter v, The Main Cause of Deterioration and Chemical Changes among the Objects in the Tomb of The Tomb of Tut.ankh.Amen, iii, approximately p. 159 [upper] to 159 [bottom]. Not transcribed here.

TAA i.2.10.82
Continuation of a draft of Chapter v, The Main Cause of Deterioration and Chemical Changes among the Objects in the Tomb of The Tomb of Tut.ankh.Amen, iii, approximately pp. 159 [bottom] to 160 [lower]. Not transcribed here.

TAA i.2.10.83
Continuation of a draft of Chapter v, The Main Cause of Deterioration and Chemical Changes among the Objects in the Tomb of The Tomb of Tut.ankh.Amen, iii, approximately pp. 160 [bottom] to 161 [middle]. Not transcribed here.

TAA i.2.10.84

Hor-em-hebi tomb

The Sepulchral Hall reaches under the end of the first corridor of Mer-en-Ptah's tomb.

The Sunken Staircase of Corridor X and the Anteroom Y are under the water-course where, during spring, water hindered by débris had pocketed in the lap of the hill.

TAA i.2.10.85
Continuation of an early draft of Chapter v, The Main Cause of Deterioration and Chemical Changes among the Objects in the Tomb of The Tomb of Tut.ankh.Amen, iii, approximately pp. 161 [middle] to 161 [bottom]. Not transcribed here.

TAA i.2.10.86

State of Hor-em-heb's tomb if my theory is correct.

Note. Fore part of tomb as far as Protective wall in good condition, little if any effect from damp.

The vestibule should be affected by damp.

Corridor and Staircase " " " "

Anteroom Y. Even more affected by damp.

Sepulchral Hall Z. Affected by damp rather more S. end than N. end.

(1) As the air at the time of these storms is saturated with humidity, evaporation plays no important role.

TAA i.2.10.87
Continuation of an early draft of Chapter v, The Main Cause of Deterioration and Chemical Changes among the Objects in the Tomb of The Tomb of Tut.ankh.Amen, iii, approximately pp. 161 [bottom] to 162 [middle]. Not transcribed here.

TAA i.2.10.88
Continuation of an early draft of Chapter v, The Main Cause of Deterioration and Chemical Changes among the Objects in the Tomb of The Tomb of Tut.ankh.Amen, iii, approximately pp. 162 [middle] to 163 [middle]. Not transcribed here.

TAA i.2.10.89 = a sketch made on The Continental Savoy, Cairo, Hotel stationary. Not transcribed here.

TAA i.2.10.90
For a man accustomed to carry the weight and responsibility of his work and who alone responsible to himself, the state of mental disquiet through procrastination on the part of the Egyptian Government becomes appalling. How long patience will last is a problem I dare not venture upon, but as a limit and as a valve to one's feelings, I have booked a passage to London on the 4th of May.

Continuation of an early draft of Chapter v, The Main Cause of Deterioration and Chemical Changes among the Objects in the Tomb of The Tomb of Tut.ankh.Amen, iii, approximately p. 163 [lower]. Not transcribed here.

TAA i.2.10.91
Conclusion of an early draft of Chapter v, The Main Cause of Deterioration and Chemical Changes among the Objects in the Tomb of The Tomb of Tut.ankh.Amen, iii, approximately pp. 164 [middle] to end. Not transcribed here.

(November 21, 2010)

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