The Griffith Institute
University of Oxford

Excavation journals and diaries made by Howard Carter and Arthur Mace

Howard Carter's excavation diaries (transcripts and scans)

4th Season, September 28th 1925 to May 21st 1926

This is Howard Carter's journal for the 4th excavation season of the tomb of Tutankhamun which took place between Autumn 1925 and Spring 1926. The events covered by this journal are the removal of the lids of the outermost (October 13th 1925) and middle coffins (October 23rd 1925), unveiling the innermost coffin and discovering it was made of solid gold (October 24th 1925), the raising of the lid of the innermost coffin, revealing the wrapped mummy of Tutankhamun and first mention of the King's gold mask (October 28th 1925), and the unwrapping and examination of Tutankhamun's mummy (November 11th to 19th 1925).

The journal is housed within its original black ring-binder, stamped "Walker's Loose-Leaf Book, Cover Number 138" on the inside front cover, it measures 34 by 24 by 1 cm. and contains 111 loose-leaf unruled pages. TAA Archive i.2.3, pages 1 to 111. All entries are in Howard Carter's hand.

This transcript follows the format of the original document, and any insertions, deletions or duplications are indicated accordingly. Scans of the original journal pages are provided and are positioned to the right of the transcript, these are magnified by positioning the pointer on the image.

Left London for Egypt, via Trieste and Alexandria per SS 'Heluan'.
The Channel crossing was bad, but the voyage from Trieste to Alex.
very beautiful and quite hot.

Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 1 (TAA i.2.1.1) Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 1 (TAA i.2.3.1)
Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 1 (© Griffith Institute, TAA i.2.3.1)

Arrived Alex. 3pm, Cairo 10.15pm, where my boy Abd el Asl
met me. Put up at the Continental Savoy Hotel. They gave
me the same room as poor Ld. C. used to have.

Saw Edgar at the Cairo Museum. Arranged with him
for the electric light at the tombs of the Kings to start from
Oct. 11th. I also conveyed to him my programme for this
season's work (1925-26), and the necessity of making the
examination of the royal mummy as early as possible,
mentioning that the arrangement was for it to take place
on or about the 25th of Oct., when Prof. Douglas Derry and
Saleh Bey Hamdi would assist. That this scientific examination
should be carried out as quietly and conveniently as possible, but that
I should delay rewrapping the mummy until I knew whether
the Ministers would like inspect the royal remains. The
question arose with regard to M. Lacau being present during
the examination. As he would not be back from leave
before November, I asked Edgar, so as not to delay the
work, to cable Lacau and ask him if he had any
objection to Edgar representing him during the examination.

Lucas to come up either with me on Tuesday (6th) or the following

Called upon Bedawi Pasha at the P.W.D. He was away at

Arranged about stores & servants for the Season's work.

Have been pestered by correspondents of local and foreign papers who
always more than one can tell. They complain that the proposed
daily or weekly bulletin (as laid down in the agreement to be issued by the Press Bureau) will not
suffice their wants - they want private interviews and personal details.
This is interesting, in so far that under the original regime they,
one and all, complain that it was not done through the Press Bureau,
and now that they have got this they do not want it! All
this makes me begin to fear that this season's campaign will
not be an easy one from that point of view. However, my
one hope is that I am allowed to carry out the investigation
in a proper & scientific manner and the work not jeopardised
by Press & other curious onlookers.

Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 3 (TAA i.2.3.3) Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 3 (TAA i.2.3.3)
Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 3 (© Griffith Institute, TAA i.2.3.3)

Saw Edgar 11am this morning. He had not yet received
a reply to his cable to M. Lacau, re his representing him
at the examination of the royal mummy.

Saw Lucas. We inspected the Tut.Ankh.Amen exhibits
in the Museum, from the point of view of preservation.
I think possibly there is a tendency of the throne
darkening a little and we decided that late next spring we would treat it with wax which ought not only to
brighten it up, but also help to make a permanent

I was horrified to find that the silver stick (fellow
to the gold stick), now exhibited flat, in one of the glass
show cases, was broken in two. This, I was told, was
done by one of the European officials when showing it
to M. Capart of the Brussels Museum. It seems a shame
after all the trouble in preserving those precious objects
and safely transporting them to the Museum, that they should
be allowed to be handled by persons that do not know
how to handle antiquities.

Arranged for motor car to be sent to Luxor on Monday (5th).

Saw General Haking (C.D.C. troops HQ) this morning - he looked
very well, and seems a thoroughly good man for this country.

Received a note from C.C. Edgar to say that: "Lacau
has just cabled to say that it is necessary that he should
be present at the opening of the mummy and that he will
be Luxor by the 10th of Nov." - for examination without ceremony" -
trusting that this delay will not inconvenience …." me,

Here is another delay for my work! One thing I can
get along with something else in the meantime. Must
arrange for Derry & Saleh Bey to defer their coming until then.

11am. Paid a visit to H.E. Bedawi Pasha (Conseiller Royale P.W.D.).
He was most pleasant. In the course of friendly conversation
I recounted to him my programme for this season's work,
especially that of the examination of the royal mummy to take place
in the presence of M. Lacau, Nov. 10th, and the probability of
their Ex's the Ministers inspecting the mummy after the scientific
examination - I mentioned this point "after the scientific examination"
as the procedure might take several days and we could hardly
expect their Ex's to be present the whole time. I also mentioned
a matter of issuing photos to Erop European & Egyptian
illustrated papers over and above the Bulletin per the Press Bureau.
To this he seemed to agree providing it would in no way raise
any question of private monopoly or cause trouble in any way with
the Eg. Gov. He accepted my suggestion that when the time was
ripe for such procedure I would put my proposal in concrete form
to him and we would then discuss it privately.

Note I think to cover the matter of Eg. Papers and photos that would be
supplied at least a mail later than the European papers - this to
prevent any encroachment of copyright in the way of sale on their part
of any of the photos issued to them.

Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 5 (TAA i.2.3.5) Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 5 (TAA i.2.3.5)
Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 5 (© Griffith Institute, TAA i.2.3.5)

Left Cairo with Lucas for Luxor. 7pm.

Arrived Luxor 8.30am. Put up at Winter Palace.

Saw the Chief Inspector Luxor - Tewfik Eff. Boulos - re work & light.

" Moawen of Police - the Bey the Marmur being absent on leave.

Crossed over; 9am, to Gurna, 11am.

Put house in order & made up outstanding a/cs with men.

Inspected Valley - tomb, laboratory and magazine - found everything
in order. Unpacked materials sent out from London & placed
them in magazine. Instructed Reises to employ labour to
commence uncovering the entrance of the tomb on the following morning
Sat. 10th.

Upon starting a new season's work there is always a
lot to do preparing for the proposed expedition. The first few days
are mostly employed in getting ready and putting in order
various instruments and impedimenta for scientific work.
All of which have to be tested. To start work under circumstances
so different to those in Europe, and where many simple
appliances and facilities cannot be obtained, much prearrangement
and consideration is required - mostly in simplifying one's requirements,
or adapting the materials available. Even with material
one has especially ordered from England or elsewhere, when
examined on the spot, often you find that it proves a
little too large or small as the case may be, or that it has
to be got into working order as well as the men taught how
to use it - a tedious and what appears a waste of time before
one can start upon the real and interesting part of the work of
an archaeologist. It is thus one spends the first few days
of in preparation for a new season's work, only brightened by the smiles upon the
faces of the Reises when they first realize the use & advantage
of some new gadget to help them in the forthcoming work.

Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 7 (TAA i.2.3.7) Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 7 (TAA i.2.3.7)
Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 7 (© Griffith Institute, TAA i.2.3.7)

Commenced opening tomb with 20 25 men and 50 75 boys.

Shaban Effendi arrived at Valley.

With an extra amount of carriers the work of covering the tomb
entrance advanced rapidly and was completed today - thus
enabling us to make an inspection of the interior tomorrow.
Considering the heat and the amount of the was rubbish
that covered the entrance - put there at the termination of
last season's work - the Reises and workmen have carried
out this piece of work in a quick and thoroughly efficient
manner, for which they deserve great praise.

Sent the chauffeur into Luxor to put in order the old car
of past season's, ready for sale, I having purchased a new ca
and brought with me a new car, for fear the old one would
not carry through the season.

It will be interesting to see what effect the odours and insecticide
such as coarse petroleum sprinkled in both the tomb and the laboratory before
closing last year will have had upon the various insectivore
that had infected the tomb and lab. When open during the past

Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 9 (TAA i.2.3.9) Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 9 (TAA i.2.3.9)
Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 9 (© Griffith Institute, TAA i.2.3.9)

Between 7 and 8am this morning we opened the tomb. First by
removing the water tight timber blocking before the entrance
doorway & composed of heavy Turkish oak beams with soft
deal boards between them and which screened the wooden door
of the passage; unlocked the wooden doorof the passage;
at the further end of the descending passage we removed the sheets
screening the steel-gate of Ante-room, opened the steel-gate
(closed by numerous locks) and entered the Ante-room and Burial
Chamber, and where we found everything in perfect order, with hardly
a trace of dust settled since we closed it last spring, save
on the black pall (modern) black pall covering the sarcophagus were
a few small pieces of plaster that had disintegrated & fallen
from the ceiling. Though there wer

Though there were a few traces of those fish-like insects that eat
materials like paper, the insectides seem to have had good effect -
and the tomb practically free of these pests.

The 2000 candle power electric lamps over the sarcophagus were turned on, the modern pall
removed, exposing, under the glass the great gold incised coffin
within the sarcophagus - a sight which seems each time witnessed
even more emotional. Tewfik Effendi, Shaban Effendi, Lucas and the Reises
were present.
Finding everything in perfect order I reclosed the gates & went to the
lab opened the laboratory which has been protected by a heavy
wooden screen exactly fitting the rock cut opening. ? This wooden screen removed
we unlocked the steel gates and entered. Here everything was also free
from dust & insects and in good order.

The rest of the morning spent in getting various things ready
to begin work tomorrow (13th).

Thus the Valley, screaming with workmen these last two days, has,
until the winter migrants come, its normal sepulchral once again.

Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 11 (TAA i.2.3.11) Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 11 (TAA i.2.3.11)
Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 13 (© Griffith Institute, TAA i.2.3.13)

7am. Made preparations for raising the lid of the gold incased
outer coffin.

Upon careful inspection of the coffin as it rested in the
sarcophagus, it was decided that the four original bronze handles
(two on each side) were sufficiently well preserved to support the
weight of the lid of the coffin and therefore could be utilized in
raising it, that is if it were possible to remove the bronze pins by
which it was fixed to the shell of the coffin.

The lid was fixed to the shell by means of ten bronze tongues securely
riveted to the lid and fitted into corresponding sockets in the thickness
of the wooden sides of the shell - four on each side, one at the
head, and one at the foot-end - where they were held in place
by the above mentioned metal pins.

As the coffin nearly occupied nearly the whole of the space of the interior of the
sarcophagus, leaving only a small space all round, especially at
the head & foot ends, the space available for extracting the
pins was very limited, but by careful manipulation it
was found that they could be withdrawn without much difficulty,
with the exception of the pin of the head end where there was
only space enough to pull it half out and therefore had
to be sawn (filed) through before the inner half could be withdrawn.

Having extracted the ten pins, the next procedure was to place
in position the necessary hoisting tackle. This consisted
of two sets of three sheaf pulley-blocks, provided with
automatic brakes, and fixed to an overhead scaffold.
The pulleys being so hung as to come immediately above
the centre of the lid opposite each pair of handles. The
pulleys were then attached to the handles of the lid by means
of strong cord slings - the coffin being protected from possible
damage by pads of wadding. The tackle being in position,
by midday the lid was very slowly raised. It came up
fairly readily without mishap, revealing a second anthropoid
coffin, covered with a thin gossamer gossamer linen sheet darkened
and decayed, upon which were lying over the breast of the coffin floral
garlands and a separate wreath of flowers placed on the
emblems of the forehead over the linen.

Underneath this thin linen sheet or shroud, in places a glimpse
could be obtained of elaborate multi-coloured glass inlay
upon fine gold work.

This was carried out by myself in the presence of Mr A. Lucas
and the assistance of the native Reises. The undertaking was
completed by 12.45, the tomb closed to await photographic
records before proceeding further. Some time was spent last
summer working out the methods to be followed in the above
undertaking and providing the necessary appliances.

The only ominous feature is that parts of the second coffin visible
through the linen wrapp covering, show distinct efflorescence
incrusted upon the inlay and surface gold-work and tendency
of swelling here and there. This is certainly disconcerting, as
it suggests at some time the existence of humidity, possibly
from the mummy of the king, wrapped and placed in the
coffin before being perfectly dry. If this is the case
its preservation will, I fear, not be so good as might
have been hoped for.

Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 13 (TAA i.2.3.13) Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 13 (TAA i.2.3.13)
Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 13 (© Griffith Institute, TAA i.2.3.13)

This morning was spent in preparing a suitable tray
to carry the lid and transporting the lid it to the laboratory
where it will be unclear treated and preserved.

It measures some 2 2.30 metres in length and 0.87 in width and
astonishingly heavy.

I expect Mr. Harry Burton to arrive tomorrow, when he will
undertake to make photographic records of the search state
second coffin, before anything is touched.

Fortunately there was no wind this morning so that the lid

Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 11 (TAA i.2.3.11) Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 15 (TAA i.2.3.15)
Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 15 (© Griffith Institute, TAA i.2.3.15)

Removed the wreath from the outer coffin around the emblems upon forehead.
Having preparations to make for Burton - no further work today in the
tomb or laboratory today.

Burton arrived 11.30am.

Burton having arrived yesterday, he made preparations for his photographic
records this morning.

Lucas commenced upon the preservation work of the lid of the first
(outermost) coffin.)

I made notes in preparation for continuing the opening of the coffin
the moment Burton has made his records.

Tewfik Effendi Boulos visited the work this morning. He mentioned he
would like to be present when I raised the lid of the second coffin.

He also mentioned that Shaban Effendi was under the belief and
instructions that the coffins were not to be opened until Lacau came.
I explained that this was a misunderstanding, and that referred
to the examinations of the royal mummy. That I was obliged to open
the cases first & would stop the moment the mummy was discovered,
and that was in accordance to our conversation with Edgar
in Cairo.

The remainder of Burton's photographic materials arrived this morning
in the Valley.

Tewfik Effendi asked for a Bulletin.

Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 17 (TAA i.2.3.17) Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 17 (TAA i.2.3.17)
Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 17 (© Griffith Institute, TAA i.2.3.17)

Early this morning Burton completed successfully the photographic
records of the second coffin, covered with its shroud and floral
garlands, as it rested in situ in the shell of the outermost

As it was impossible to deal in any way with the
inner second coffin on account of the depth of the sarcophagus,
the next procedure was manifestly was to raise the outer shell
and inner (second) coffin together. This was done by fixing
slings attached to overhead pulleys which were again
fastened to steel pins passed through the slots fromwhich the ancient bronze pins had been withdrawn.

In spite of the coffins proving to be an enormous weight -
far more than at first seemed possible - they were successfully
hoistered to just above the level of the top of the sarcophagus,
when wooden planks already prepared were slid under
them. In the confined space and with the restricted head
room available the task proved one of no little difficulty,
which was much increased by the necessity of avoiding
damage to the fragile gesso-gilt surfaces of the coffins, which
naturally would not stand any undue pressure.

After taking away the various hoisting gear, I carefully
removed the wreath and garlands and was able to roll
back the covering shroud. This revealed the finest example
of the ancient coffin makers' art that has yet been
seen - again Osiride in form, but so delicate in
conception and in beautiful line. In fact, as it now
lies in the outer shell upon the modern trestles it is a
wonderful picture of majesty lying in state.

The wreath and garlands placed upon a special tray that were placed upon the shroud are an early illustration of
the accounts of Pliny's accounts of ancient wreaths, and when
one examines how carefully and precise they are made -
now unfortunately much decayed - they suggest that wreath
and garland making was in those days a particular

Girgis Eff. Elias, Inspector of Antiquities of Luxor and
Keneh, Mr A. Lucas, Mr. H. Burton and the Egyptian
Reises assisted in this undertaking. Before closing the
tomb for the day Mr Burton made a series of photosgraphic
as the monument now stands.

Mr Lucas in the meantime is continuing his work of preserving
the lid of the outermost coffin.

Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 19 (TAA i.2.3.19) Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 19 (TAA i.2.3.19)
Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 19 (© Griffith Institute, TAA i.2.3.19)

With exception that the second coffin is elaborately inlaid from head
to foot with cut and engraved multi-coloured glass - of turquoise,
carnelian and lapis lazuli colours, its general form is similar
to that of the first coffin. and Again the decoration only differs in certain detail,
for example the headdress is of the banded striped linen type, and the body
is embraced with the wings of the vulture Nekhbet and the winged serpent
Buto of the Upper and Lower Kingdoms respectively, which replace
the two tutelarly goddesses Isis and Nephthys. But the fairness
of the work is far superior to that of the first coffin, in so much
that it is far more delicate and purer in line and depicts almost and conveys almost
greater feeling. The mask face in this case is has a more youthful in expression.

This whole morning was occupied devising the best measures for
solving the problem of removing this very closely fitting coffin from
the outer shell, without injuring the very delicate inlay upon its
surfaces, which has that have already suffered at some early period from
imprisoned humidity from the interior, probably some after at the time of the burial, a condition
which becomes more marked as such covering is removed.

Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 21 (TAA i.2.3.21) Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 21 (TAA i.2.3.21)
Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 21 (© Griffith Institute, TAA i.2.3.21)

In archaeological research the unexpected seems nearly
always to happen. One calculates from some former evidence
or example and for some unforseen reason the reverse
proves to be the case. Upon seeing that there were handles
on the outer coffin for lowering or raising it by, it was
therefore reasonable to expect similar metal handles would
be found on the second coffin. Unfortunately that did not
prove to be the case and it leaves a very complicated problem.
The second coffin is very heavy, its decorated surface very fragile, it
fits the outer shell so closely that it is not possible to pass one's
little finger between these the two. The lid is fixed to the coffin
as in the former case - the outer coffin, with metal pins around
its sides which cannot, as the coffin lies in the outer shell, be
extracted. Therefore the coffin must be lifted out in its entirety
from the outer shell before anything can be done. Thus the
problem is to discover a method of doing this with minimum
risk of damage.

Yesterday and today have been spent on that sole question
- how to remove that very closely fitting coffin from the outer
shell without injuring the very delicate inlaid surfaces, that
have already suffered from humidity? Humidity either
from the royal mummy or the wood imprisoned in all probability
at the time of the burial - a condition which becomes more
marked as each covering is removed.

H.E. and Madam
& Ahmed Bey Saddik, Mudir of Keneh, & his with their friends visited
the tomb this morning.

Tuesday being market day there is no work.

Without some experience of handling heavy and yet fragile
antiquities under very difficult circumstances, few can realize
that nerve racking undertaking and responsibility. The raising
of a lid of a coffin or lifting the coffin itself seems a comparatively
simple job; but when one realizes that it is deep down in the
interior of a sarcophagus where it fits quite closely, that it is
in a very fragile condition, that it is immensely heavy, that
the overhead room in the chamber is very limited, and that one
does not even know whether its wood is sufficiently well
preserved to bear its own weight, the reader will perhaps begin
to realize what an anxious work it really is.

After consultation with one's colleagues and careful
consideration, a plan of action is formed, you begin to
carry it out - probably the preparation of which has taken
several days, special appliances are devised, and as far as it
is humanly possible you have taken every precaution.
Everything goes well until suddenly, in the middle of the process,
you hear a crack - little pieces of surface ornament fall
clink clink on the floor of the sarcophagus or chamber - the
only space available is now crowded with your men, and in
a moment you have to discover what is happening -
what is the trouble, and what immediate action is
required to prevent a catastrophe. The reader will perhaps
realize that strain upon the nerves.

Again, the interest of seeing some fresh and beautiful
object exposed as a lid is being raised will often distract
your workmen, for a moment they forget their duty and
irreparable damage may be done.

Such is more than often an archaeologist's lot, and
to afterwards he is asked what were his sensations
when so and so was first discovered!

Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 23 (TAA i.2.3.23) Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 23 (TAA i.2.3.23)
Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 23 (© Griffith Institute, TAA i.2.3.23)

Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 25 (TAA i.2.3.25) Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 25 (TAA i.2.3.25)
Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 25 (© Griffith Institute, TAA i.2.3.25)

The lid of the outer coffin was completely restored this morning.
Lucas has made a good job of it.

Continued preparations in the tomb, but must wait until
the necessary screweyeshave arrived from Cairo.

This morning was among other occupied among other
preparations in making two suitable wooden trays to
receive the lid and shell of the second coffin.

To remove the second coffin from the shell of the outer coffin
into which it fitted very closely, some points of attachment
for raising it were manifestly required, and in the absence
of handles, such as were found on the outer coffin, it was
judged best to make use of, if it were possible, the metal
(bronze) pins by which the coffin & lid were fastened down.
On inspection it was found that although the space between
the two coffins was not sufficient to allow of the pins being
entirely withdrawn, they could be pulled out sufficient distance
(about 1/4 of an inch) to permit wire attachments being
fixed to them and to the overhead scaffold, which was
accordingly carried out. Strong metal eyelets were
fiexed into screwed into the thickness of the top edge
of the outer shell of the outer coffin, so as to enable it,
without damage, to be lowered from the second coffin
by means of ropes working on pulleys. The necessary
preparations being made the next stage of the work
will take place tomorrow. A good deal of the
delay these last few days has been owing to special
material having to be obtained from Cairo.

Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 27 (TAA i.2.3.27) Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 27 (TAA i.2.3.27)
Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 27 (© Griffith Institute, TAA i.2.3.27)

Today brought another of those exciting and interesting moments, in
the manner of one more important stage in the "dèblaiement" of the tomb of
Tut.Ankh.Amen - a solemnity not easily forgotten.

The afore mentioned arrangements being complete we were able to
proceed with the next stage. This was the reverse of what might at
first sight appear to be the natural order of things, the outer shell being
lowered from the second coffin, instead of the latter (the second coffin) being
lifted out of it, for reasons already explained; namely: the head room
was insufficient. The operation proved very successful, the shell
of the outer coffin was lowered once more into the sarcophagus, leaving
the second coffin suspended for a few moments in mid-air by means
of ten copper wire attachments already mentioned. A wooden
tray sufficiently large to span the mouth of opening of the sarcophagus
was then passed under it, and on this it now firmly rests. The
overhead tackle being removed photographs were then taken and
we were able to direct our energies to the raising of its lid.

The coffin like the lid proved to be elaborately inlaid with multi-
coloured glass and gold 'cloisonnes' upon gesso. The entire inlay
being in a very fragile condition handling, therefore, had to be
avoided if possible. For this reason in order, thef therefore, to
lift the lid without damaging its encrustation, metal eyelets
were screwed into it at four points (where it would not be disfigured).
To these eyelets sufficiently strong cord was attached and by means
of overhead pulleys the lid was slowly raised - its bronze pins or
rivets having been already extracted.

Though there was a slight inclination at first for it to stick, it
gradually rose and when sufficiently high to clear the contents
of the coffin it was lowered onto a wooden tray all ready to
receive it at the side.

The removal of the lid revealed yet a third coffin,
manifestly anthropoid in form, but the main details of
which are hidden by a close fitting reddish coloured linen
shroud, apparently well preserved. The gold mask of the face in
this case was bare, the features being even more juvenile than
heretofore. Placed Over the breast of the coffin & and attached to the shoulders headdress
wais an elaborate bead and floral collarette upon papyrus, several inches in

The Both operations were carried out by 12.45pm., in
the presence of Tewfik Eff. Boulos, Chief Inspector of Antiquities
for Upper Egypt, Mohamed Effendi Shaban, and Girgis Effendi
Elias, Inspector of Luxor and Keneh. Messrs. Lucas and Burton,
together with the Egyptian Reises and men assisted.

Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 29 (TAA i.2.3.29) Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 29 (TAA i.2.3.29)
Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 29 (© Griffith Institute, TAA i.2.3.29)

The first part of this morning was occupied by Burton
making photographic records of the third coffin, as it lies in
the shell of the second coffin, covered with several thicknesses of a
reddish linen sheet cloth or shroud and a wide bead and
floral collarette (sewn upon papyrus) over the neck and breast.

It was not until these photographic records were made,
was I able to remove the linen covering and inspect for the
first time the coffin itself. The removal of the coverings was a
simple operation as compared to the others we have had
to face, but it disclosed an astonishing fact - namely
that this coffin third coffin is made of solid gold. This
accounts for the great weight which has been a source
of surprise since the nest of coffins was first lifted out
from the sarcophagus, and which diminished so little
even when we had removed the outer coffin and the
lid of the second coffin, and even at this stage it is as
much as six eight strong men can lift. The coffin, (for the third
time,) proves to be in the likeness of the king symbolizing Osiris,
enveloped in the wings of Nekhbet and Buto. The main
position portion of the lid - that is the lower part such as the legs -
is beautifully chased and engraved, while the neck, breast
and two protective goddesses are inlaid with carved semi-
precious stones, but the most part of the detail is hidden
by a black lustrous coating due to pouring over the coffin
a libation of great quantity. As a result this
unparallelled monument (coffin) is stuck fast to the
interior of the second coffin - the consolidated material
of the libation filling up the space between the two (second & third) coffins
almost to the level of the lid of the third one.
To extricate this third coffin will be a very tedious and
arduous task.

Through the black coating one is able to see that
the parts of the design over the breast and body are raised and comprise a heavy
auxiliary overlay of gold. A new feature in the
coffin is the presence of two moveable massive gold
and faience necklaces fixed to the throat of the King.

The libation referred to is doubtless the principal
cause of humi the signs of humidity encountered in the
various outer coffins already dealt with. Again the
covering cloth & floral collarette had likewise suffered,
and though appeared to be in fair condition was they were found to be so
very brittle. that they their material broke to the touch.

Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 31 (TAA i.2.3.31) Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 31 (TAA i.2.3.31)
Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 31 (© Griffith Institute, TAA i.2.3.31)

It will be seen that our next problem,
which is by no means an easy one, is to remove
the third coffin firmly cemented by the libation to the
interior of the second coffin without causing damage to
either. To this subject and that of the future cleaning
of the coffin, Lucas is now giving his attention.

It is astonishing when one thinks and realizes that in
the discovery of this unique and wonderful monument -
a coffin of the finest art wrought in solid sheet gold - that there
one has found is, something like without exaggeration, something
like 15.000 – 20.000 £ of pure bullion. What riches were
those autocratic pharaohs spangled them buried with
those pharaohs! Think of what riches that valley must have once
contained. Tut.Ankh.Amen was perhaps one of the least important
buried of the 27 inter buried in that Royal Cemetery.
One begins to realize the meaning & the cause of XX early
tomb robberies recorded in the reign of Ramses IX.

Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 35 (TAA i.2.3.33) Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 33 (TAA i.2.3.33)
Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 35 (© Griffith Institute, TAA i.2.3.35)

I raised the third coffin as it rests in the shell of the
second coffin & moved them into the antechamber.

I raised the two coffins -(the third in the shell of the second-)
and moved them into the antechamber where they are
now far more accessible for examination.

It The weight of the two was as much as eight ? men could lift.
Now if one allows for the gold coffin only 100 lbs per man
that would make it some 800 lbs in weight. 20 troy lbs
of legal gold = 934 sovs. X 40 = 37,360 sovs. It is
almost unbelievable when one thinks and realizes that in
the discovery of this unique and wonderful monument -
a coffin of the finest art wrought in solid gold - that the
above cannot be far wrong of the value of pure bullion of
which it is made.

Spent the morning examining the third coffin with a view
of discovering the best means of dealing with the problem of
extracting from the shell of the second coffin where to which it is firmly fixed
by the libation.

Lucas was occupied on cleaning and waxing the lid of the
second coffin.

It was found that the lid of the third coffin was pinned to its
shell in the same manner as the other two coffins - namely
by means of ten (gold) pins which cannot possibly be extracted
as the coffin now stands. The oily or fatty substance of the
libation, probably mixed with a wood pitch, was found to be still
viscid under the surface, where it is in fairly large quantity.
An electrical soldering iron pierced it fairly easily and made
it bubble into a viscous mass where the heat affected it.

It was decided before any other anything was comple that
before any expedient was contemplated, the surfaces of the shell
of the second coffin should be thoroughly preserved and strengthened
so as to protect it from any damage with dealing with the third

Paid men for the week.

Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 37 (TAA i.2.3.37) Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 37 (TAA i.2.3.37)
Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 37 (© Griffith Institute, TAA i.2.3.37)

Tuesday no work.

In those days, such as the above amount of gold, must have been fabulous
wealth to people like stone cutters, artisans, peasants and
water carriers such as were the eight men implicated in the
robbery of the tomb of King Sebekemsaf and his queen Nubkhas,
which occurred among other robberies in the reign of Ramses IX (B.C. 1142-1123) and recorded in the a fragment of a
document now known as the Amherst Papyrus.

It is with interest to note that those ancients had in
the case of the gold coffin used real stones in the place of glass
imitation such as was the case in the Middle Kingdom.

In order to protect the delicate inlay of the shell of the second
coffin from injury, it was necessary to make it secure. It was
therefore lightly brushed to remove loose dust, sponged with hot water
and ammonia, and when dry the whole surface covered with a
thicken thick coating of paraffin-wax applied hot with a hog-
brush, which as it cooled cooled and solidified held all the
inlay securely in position, thus enabling it to be handled with

The pitch-like material with which the space between the
second and third coffins had been flooded, causing them to adhere
to one another, was made a subject of experiments. It was
found that it could be melted by heat and dissolved by certain
solvents, but neither of these methods were practical under the
existing circumstances. It was decided therefore that the best
plan of attack was, if possible to raise the lid, remove the
contents, before applying any such drastic methods.

Fortunately the line of junction of the lid and the coffin
was visible and accessible, although with difficulty, alround
excepting at the extreme foot-end where the two coffins
practically touched one another. This joint was therefore
thoroughly inspected in order to discover how the two parts (lid
& shell) were attached, and it was found that this attachment
was by means of eight tongues (four on each side) fixed in
position by metal pins. It was evident therefore that if
the pins could be extracted the lid could be raised.

In the confined space between the two coffins ordinary
instruments for extracting the metal pins were useless and
others had to be improvised. Long screw-drivers were
converted into curved levers and it was found possible to insert
these under the heads of the metal pins, and gradually work
them out. This proved a very difficult and tedious operation,
taking several hours, but eventually it was crowned with
success and without any injury either to the (third) coffin
or the shell of the second coffin. The pins removed the lid
was raised. The penultimate scene was disclosed -
a very neatly wrapped mummy of the young king, with golden
mask of sad but tranquil expression, symbolizing Osiris.
The similitude of the youthful Tut.Ankh.Amen, until now
known only by name, amid that sepulchral silence,
made us realize the past. By this bespangled mummy as
it lies in the coffin, he must have been a tall youth -
from the top of the headdress of the mask to the feet it measures 6 feet.
Attached to the throat of the golden mask, beautifully wrought
with juvenile countenance, are three massive gold & faience
necklaces, a pendent heart-scarab placed between the
hands, crossed over the breast, which hold the flail and
the crook. Below this mask, which reaches as far as the hands,
is the linen covering and outer bandages, strapped in place
by broad longitudinal and transverse flexible bands of inlaid
gold work depending from a highly decorative incrusted gold
protective figure of Nekhbet. She has full spread wings
reached across the body and a human head.

Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 39 (TAA i.2.3.39) Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 39 (TAA i.2.3.39)
Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 39 (© Griffith Institute, TAA i.2.3.39)

Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 41 (TAA i.2.3.41) Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 41 (TAA i.2.3.41)
Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 41 (© Griffith Institute, TAA i.2.3.41)

From the hands downwards the royal mummy has been
covered by a libation, which has darkened the linen and
hidden the detail of the inlaid gold bands wit which bear
texts and an edged with rows of beads. From this libation,
as well as from that poured on the exterior of the coffin, has
emanated humidity which has been the cause of certain

As yesterday's work carried us on until 1.30 pm Burton
had to make the photographic records of the King's mummy,
lying in situ, today. This was done in detail but the general
view has yet to be made tomorrow.

In detail the mummy is wrapped to represent Osiris, the mask
bears that god's attributes, but the likeness is that of the Tut.Ankh.Amen
- placid and beautiful, with the same features as we find upon
his statues and outer coffins. The mask has fallen slightly back,
thus its gaze is straight up to the heavens.

The face, headdress and collarette are of massive sheet gold.
Eyes of aragonite, pupils of obsidian, eyelids and eyebrows
of lapis lazuli.

The symbols, the uraeus (Buto) and the vulture (Nekhbet),
of Upper and Lower Egypt, upon the forehead are also of massive
gold inlaid with semi-precious stone and glass.

The conventional Osiride head of gold inlaid with lapis lazuli
in pleated pattern.

The three necklaces which are attached to the neck of by means
of solar sep serpent fastenings are of different coloured gold beads
divided at intervals with faience beads.

The scarab carved out of some black material (not yet recognised)
is also attached to the throat by means of long flexible bands of
inlaid gold work bordered with beads.

The collarette, with hawk-head clasps at each shoulder
is of sheet gold incrusted with inlaid stones representing beads
and pendants.

The closed hands, which appear to be sewn to the linen wrapping,
are separate to the mask. They are, of like the flesh of the
face, of burnished gold, hav and have bracelets of inlaid stone
upon the wrists. They hold the crook and the flail made of
some (?) composition decayed from action of humidity.

Below, over the body and legs of the King, are four transverse
and three longitudinal (one down the centre & one on each side)
bands of flexible gold work bearing inlaid inscriptions
bordered with gold beads. These dep straps or bands are dependent
from the hands and in the centre of the body a beautiful winged goddess Nekhbet
having a human mal human male head, and body
and claws of a vulture. Unf

Unfortunately the fine detailed workmanship of the goddess
and bands is hidden under a dark varnish like coating of
the pitch-like libation that has been poured over the mummy.
I rather fear that this libation has also stuck the mummy
to the bottom of the coffin?

Received a visit from Tewfik Eff. Boulos.

Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 43 (TAA i.2.3.43) Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 43 (TAA i.2.3.43)
Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 43 (© Griffith Institute, TAA i.2.3.43)

Burton completed the photographic records of the royal

Having prepared a suitable wooden tray lined with wadding, I
was then able to remove the external trappings that were on the body.
comprising longitudinal and transverse bands of flexible gold work
finely inlaid with designs and inscriptions mentioned above. that were
sewn to the linen covering and bandages. Their threads were much
decayed, they had to be removed piecemeal and placed in
their exact order upon the tray for future remounting.

The more one examines the external wrappings of the mummy
the more evident it becomes that at least the outer ones bandages are completely
deteriorated, almost one might say carbonized, from the action of the libation poure
that had been poured over it. One's only hope is that we shall
find those the wrappings improve in better condition after several
thicknesses have been removed?

Lucas continued his reparation work upon the lid of
the second coffin.

Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 45 (TAA i.2.3.45) Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 45 (TAA i.2.3.45)
Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 45 (© Griffith Institute, TAA i.2.3.45)

All the moveable objects upon the exterior of the mummy
were removed today.

I then attempted to remove the mummy and mask from the
coffin, but found that unfortunately both were stuck fast to the
bottom of the coffin, and could not be under the present conditions raised out without using
great force, such as would endanger endangering both endangering both the royal remains
and the finely wrought mask.
The libation that was poured over the body had consolidated
at the bottom and stuck them fast. My one hope now
is that the heat of the sun may soften it sufficiently so as
to enable one to gradually loosen mummy free it and raise
it. If not, unless some other expedient is discovered, we shall
have to make the examination as it lies within the two coffins.

PS. 45,7. Thou lovest righteousness, and hatest wickedness: therefore
God, thy God, hath anointed thee with the oil of gladness above
thy fellows.

PS. 92,10. I shall be anointed with fresh oil.

Heb. 1,9. Thou hast loved righteousness, and hated iniquity;
therefore God, even thy God, hath anointed thee with the oil of
gladness above thy fellows.

IS 61,3. To appoint unto them that mourn in Zion, to give unto
them beauty for ashes, the oil of joy for mourning, the garment
of praise for the spirit of heaviness; that they might be called
trees of righteousness, the planting of the Lord, that he might
be glorified.

Mark 14,8. She hath done what she could: she is come aforehand
to anoint my body to the burying.

With regard to the libation It would appear from the material that this substance it is
composed of - seemingly fatty or oily substance mixed with (?) wood-pitch -
that it is more an ointment than a libation. This oil liquid
or ointment no doubt was applied in religious ceremony
for the consecration of the dead king before appearing before the
Great God (Osiris) of the underworld. It is particularly noticeable
that on both the third coffin and the mummy the head
and feet have been carefully avoided, even even though the feet
of the first coffin were anointed with a similar material.

Remark the episode that occurred "in the house of Simon
the leper" when "there came a woman having an alabaster
box of ointment of spikenard very precious; … she is
come aforehand to anoint my body to the burying."
Mark 14, 1-8.

Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 47 (TAA i.2.3.47) Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 47 (TAA i.2.3.47)
Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 47 (© Griffith Institute, TAA i.2.3.47)

Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 49 (TAA i.2.3.49) Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 49 (TAA i.2.3.49)
Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 49 (© Griffith Institute, TAA i.2.3.49)

Removed the Royal Mummy to No. 15. It took ten men
to bring out of the Tomb and carry it up. Placed in the sun
for a few hours, while Lucas, Burton & self hammered
off the black coating upon the lid of the third coffin.
Heat of the sun not sufficient today to make any real
impression upon the pitch-like material which has
stuck fast the mummy & coffins.

Lady C.

Found that the heat of the sun was of no avail in freeing
the mummy from its coffin. In consequence, the examination
of the Royal Mummy must necessarily take place as it lies.

Cleaned the greater part of the thick coating upon the
third coffin.

No work in the Valley. Spent the day upon various reports,

While Burton was occupied in taking further records
of the Royal Mummy lying in its Coffin, and Lucas
upon cleaning the lid of the third Coffin, I raised the
shell of the first Coffin from which still out of the Sarcophagus.

This was done by means of pulleys attached to the over-
head scaffolding and to metal eyelets fixed into the
thickness of the upper edges of the coffin. It was then
raised sufficiently high above the Sarcophagus to enable
us to pass a wooden tray under it, upon which
it was lowered, and then lifted out into the Antechamber.
It proves to be a great weight, and has suffered
considerably from humidity in past ages causing the
gold work upon gesso to bulge and become completely
detached from the basic wood. Fortunately it can be repaired
and made good by careful filling in the interstices
with hot paraffin wax.

There remains now but one object to be removed
from the Sarcophagus, and that is the golden bier -
a sort of bed with lions heads and feet standing upon the floor of the Sarcophagus - upon which
the nest of coffins is rested.

The astonishing fact about this bier, is that it appears
to be in perfect condition, even though it has supported the
enormous weight of the nesting three coffins - as much as
fifteen strong men could lift (x) - for over thirty centuries.
I passed stout broad webbing under it - one piece at
the head, another at the foot-end - preparatory to raising
it tomorrow.

(x Rather more than a ton.)

Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 51 (TAA i.2.3.51) Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 51 (TAA i.2.3.51)
Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 51 (© Griffith Institute, TAA i.2.3.51)

The last stage in raising the coffins was completed
early this morning, and that was the removal of the
gilt-wood bier which stood on the floor of the Sarcophagus,
upon which the First Outermost Coffin rested.

It proved to be made of stout wood, covered with gesso
and gilt with a fine gold foil, standing about
9 inches from the ground. It is curved so as to receive the and
both fit the bottom of the coffin, has at the head end
lion's heads, at the foot small lion's tails, & four feet
of lion type. The centre part of the bed within the frame
work is ornamented to represent a corded mesh.

Though a little bent, the joints are only just visible,
which is witness of the quality of timber used and its
good joinery when one remembers that it has supported
for over thirty centuries more than a ton in weight.

Everything is now ready for the examination of the
Royal mummy, which I trust will occur early
next week.

Beneath the bier-like bed-like bier, were a number
of wood chips, bearing gold-work upon gesso, that had been
hacked off by a very sharp instrument like an adze.

As there are no traces of any parts being cut off from
the coffins, these chips, which are fairly large, must come
from the inner most shrine which enclosed the Sarcophagus.
It is again evide[nce] They are again evidence of the careless manner the in which the careless
undertakers erected these shrines, mentioned in the preliminary
chapters. Besides these there were a lot of old rags and
a stout piece of wood evidently used as a lever. Under the
head of the bed were fragments of garlands that had
fallen from the coffins when lowered into the Sarcophagus.

With thise last stages of the 'déblaiement' of the Tomb
of Tut.Ankh.Amen, we have an unique example, for the first time,
of the funerary customs followed in the burial of one of
Ancient Egypt's Pharaohs:

First a great outermost shrine, a second shrine over
which draped a gold bespangled pall, a third and a
fourth innermost shrine, all of which were nested one within the
other and sealed, the last containing enclosing an immense
monolithic quartzite Sarcophagus. In the Sarcophagus,
with the lid cemented to in its bed, a nest of three great
anthropoid coffins carved in the likeness of the Osiride King.
and which resting They rested upon a heavy wood gilt bed-like bier,
and which enclosed the golden masked mummy of the
Pharaoh wrapped as though it were that of Osiris himself, the Ruler
of the underworld. x

Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 53 (TAA i.2.3.53) Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 53 (TAA i.2.3.53)
Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 53 (© Griffith Institute, TAA i.2.3.53)

Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 55 (TAA i.2.3.55) Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 55 (TAA i.2.3.55)
Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 55 (© Griffith Institute, TAA i.2.3.55)

The king during his life was called the 'good god', and
it was only after his death that he attains to the higher title
the 'great god', and becomes a divinity.

over which an anointment for consecration purposes
had been poured.

Thus there were at least making eight enclosures in all,
excluding the pall and the bier. plus pulling aside the pall over the
second shrine and the bier supporting that supported the nest of coffins.

Osiris, the Ruler of the underworld.

When one alone considers the immense labour of
making, carving and gilding all those beautiful elaborate
shrines, the hewing and transport of that immense quartzite
Sarcophagus, the moulding, carving, inlaying and goldsmith's
work of those magnificent coffins, taking into account
the labour and the value of metal therein, one begins to
realize the great immense cost and trouble that was attached to
the burial of an a pharaoh. Let alone the excavation
of those rock-cut chambers corridors and chambers
and all the funeral furniture they contained.

Worked in Laboratory upon lid of First Coffin.

Received a visit from H.E. Sir Geoffrey and Lady Archer, Gov. of
Sudan, the Mudir of Keneh Sayed Fuad El Kholi Bey, and
a number of other officials. This occupied practically the whole
of the morning.

Carpenter & boy came.

Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 57 (TAA i.2.3.57) Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 57 (TAA i.2.3.57)
Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 57 (© Griffith Institute, TAA i.2.3.57)

Constructed a wooden paraphernalia for Burton
to photograph upon.

Prepared magazine for luncheon

" Royal mummy for examination.

Lucas completed practically cleaning the lid of Coffin (third)
No. 255.

Arranged for Lacau, Derry and Saleh Bey -
arriving Wednesday 11th.

Bey Tuesday - No work in the Valley.

Herodotus of the latter part of the Vth Century B.C. writes (ii, Chap. 86):
"There are a set of men in Egypt who practise the art of
"embalming, and make it their proper business. These
"persons, when a body is brought to them, show the bearers
"various models of corpses, made in wood, and painted so as
"to resemble nature. The these were, do doubt, in the form of
"Osiris most perfect is said to be after the manner of him
"whom I do not think it religious to name in connection
"with such matter"; (no doubt the god of the dead, Osiris)". The Second
"is inferior to the first, and less costly; the third is the cheapest
"of all. All this the embalmers explain, and then ask in
"which way it is wished that the corpse should be prepared.
"The bearers tell them, and having concluded their bargain,
"take their departure, while the embalmers, left to themselves,
"proceed to their task".

Herodotus continues of the to say this ??? Referring to the "most perfect process",
is the following: ???" (after and after recounting their methods of
dealing with the brain and other soft parts of the body, ) continues says:
Herodotus says: - "Then the body is placed in natron, a natural soda from the natron lakes in the Lybian
desert, very probably such as the lake of Wâdi Natrûn
for seventy days, and
"covered entirely over. After the expiration of that space of time,
"which must not be exceeded, for al risk of the natron eating into the flesh, the body is washed and
"wrapped round, from head to foot, with bandages of fine linen
"cloth, smeared over with gum, which is used generally by the
"Egyptians in place of glue, and in this state it is given
"back to the relations, who enclose it in a wooden case which
"they have had made for the purpose, shaped into the figure
"of a man …"


Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 59 (TAA i.2.3.59) Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 59 (TAA i.2.3.59)
Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 59 (© Griffith Institute, TAA i.2.3.59)

Today has been a great day in the history of
archaeology, I might also say in the history of archaeological
discovery, and a day of days for one who has longed to
see i after years of work, excavating, conserving & recording
has longed to see in fact what has only been previously has only
been conjectural.

At 9.45am H.E. Saleh Enan Pasha, U.S.S. P.W.M.; M. P.
Lacau D.G. Depart. Antiq.; Dr. D. Derry, Prof. Antq. School
of Medc., Kasr El Eini, Cairo; Dr. Saleh Bey Hamdi, formerly
Dir. Of the same school; H.E. Sayed Fuad Bey El Kholi,
Mudir of Keneh; Mr. A. Lucas; Mr. H. Burton; Tewfik Eff.
Boulos, Chief Insp. Up. Eg. For the Antiq. Depart; Mohamed
Eff. Shaban, Ass. Cur. Cairo Mus.; Hamed Eff. Suliman,
Tech. Sec. to the U.S.S.; and the Egyptian Staff attached
to our expedition; arrived in the Valley of the tombs of the

As afore mentioned the mummy of the King could
not without damage without considerable damage
be removed from the coffin, the examination had
necessarily to take place as it lay.

10.35am The outer layer o In consequence of the fragile and powdery nature
of the outer layers of the wrappings, the whole of the
exposed surface of the mummy except the mask, was
painted over with melted paraffin wax of such a temperature
that it chiefly congealed as a thin coating on the
surface and did not penetrate the decayed wrappings
more than a very short distance.

As soon as the wax had cooled, Dr. Derry made a
longitudinal incision down the centre of the outer wrappings
to just below the depth to which the wax had penetrated, thus
enabling the consolidated outer layers of the wrappings to
be removed in large pieces. The under bandages which were in
grea very voluminous were found to be equally decayed
and fragile, in fact, as it eventually proved the deeper and nearer the body,
the worse the condition.

C and D

Almost immediately below the outer crust of decayed
wrappings, were found, on the left flank, two gold sheet gold
amulets - (C. bracer D. oval plaque). As it After
remov After removing the outer layer of wrappings, it
was still found impossible to withdraw the mummy from
the mask & coffin, the pitch-like material having
collected in large quantity underneath.

It was decided therefore to remove layer by layer the
remainder of the wrappings. Here & there when the linen
was slightly better preserved it was possible to recognise
that the work of binding was as usually practised
upon mummies of the New Empire. Here & there were
a number of lightly wrapped pads of linen, beyond
these facts, little else could be recognised, the linen
being reduced to the consistency of soot.

Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 61 (TAA i.2.3.61) Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 61 (TAA i.2.3.61)
Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 63 (© Griffith Institute, TAA i.2.3.61)

As the operation progressed the following objects in layers were
gradually exposed:-

Sometimes an object was partly included
in several layers of lower linen bandages.

E to H

High up upon the breast, immediately below the collarette
of the Mask, and superimposed upon one another, E.were
vulture the following: amuletic ornaments. East? of
chased sheet gold: (E.) vulture, (F.) vulture & serpent, (G.) the
serpent Buto, (H.) collarette, one above the other in
the order mentioned.

Just below the knees there was a group (I) of numerous
segments of an m a large inlaid gold collarette, it
which had been doubled up - its segments one upon the other -
the inlay of which was much deteriorated and partly fallen
out. These latter were removed after photographic records
of them 'in situ' had been made.

Further layers of wrappings still in bad condition were
removed, which exposed another group of objects:
(J) Seven sections of a long inlaid gold ornament such as are depicted
on the front of the skirt of a pharaoh. This descended extended
from above the pubis to the knees. (K) A highly ornamented gold dagger
with crystal knob, lying along the right thigh. (L) A
narrow band of she decorated sheet gold around the waist,
similar to those depicted on the monuments. (M) A T-shaped
amulet of sheet gold, lying over the abdomen & reaching
down to the pubis. (N) A large gold inlaid bracelet, open,
lying over upper part of left thigh. (O) A (?) object of
gold and beadwork, at slightly lower level over left side of abdomen: this being
in fragile condition was consolidated with melted paraffin
wax. (P) A large amuletic sh chased sheet gold
hawk with outspread wings, stretching over the upper part
of abdomen - (this was many several layers of cloth bandages below, E. F.
G. and H.). (Q). Lying over the umbilicus and pendent
from the upper part of the body by means of a gold wire,
was a large (?) black resin scarab. ® A solid gold
uraeus (Buto) and along the left thigh. (S) The head
and neck of a gold vulture (Nekhbet), on the right
thigh. Note orientation N. & S. of the body.

At this stage photographic records were again taken.

When (J) was removed, it was seen that underneath
was a layer of bandage of corresponding length and width.
Also under (J) was the remainder of eye (I), which was
again photographed.

Under group E. F. G.and H., higher up and under the
mask, practicually apparently covering the face, was a fifth hawk amulet

(T) a hawk of chased sheet gold, similar in type and
belonging to that group, but not visible in the photographic records
taken today, it being completely hidden by the collarette of the mask.

Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 65 (TAA i.2.3.65) Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 65 (TAA i.2.3.65)
Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 65 (© Griffith Institute, TAA i.2.3.65)

This was as far as we were able to proceed today.
After the final photos were made, all objects mentioned,
with exception of the remainder of group (I) and (T), were
removed preparatory to the continuation of the proceedings
on the following day.

The bracelet (N).

Gradually, as the work proceeds, one is able to detect
among these objects, that which is purely religious and
amuletic and that which was real and personal
property. For instance in all probability the
uraeus (R), the vulture head (S), the dagger (K), the
bracelet (N), and possibly the collarette (I), are more
personal than the series of sheet gold objects of amuletic
type above mentioned. They are magnificent, but
this is not the moment to describe them. Their description,
piece by piece, will come in due course.

It is to be much regretted that the wrappings were
found in such critical condition - a condition preventing
any reliable record of them, even their approximate
system of binding.

It is to be regretted that the wrappings were in such
dreadful condition - a condition which preventing any
reliable record of theireven their approximate binding.

(Note orientation of certain objects such the vulture head
and uraeus.)

Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 67 (TAA i.2.3.67) Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 67 (TAA i.2.3.67)
Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 67 (© Griffith Institute, TAA i.2.3.67)

The same gentlemen were present today - with exception
of the Chief Inspector of the district for reasons best known to himself.

The proceedings recommenced 8.15am by Mr Burton taking
further records - duplicating yesterday afternoon's photographs -
as we had decided to reverse the position of the coffin on account
of the light.

Further layers of decayed wrappings were carefully removed
from the lower part of the mummy which revealed the following named objects: -

(U.) A gold inlaid circlet, lying over the umbilicus.

(V) A similar gold circlet, above the right knee.

(W) " " " " " " left ".

(X) A massive bracelet of gold and carnelian, on the right
forearm near the elbow (this will be referred to again
in later stage with a group of similar objects).

(Y) Mingled with the two circlets V and W. were parts of necklace
composed of faience and gold beads.

At this stage photographic records were again taken,
and various objects already mentioned were removed.

(Z) A large hawk (?) plaque, comprising numerous sections
of finely inlaid gold-work, connected by small beadwork
between the separate sections, and acting like hinges.
This was lying over the chest apparently just below the neck,
and was covered with a plain sheet of papyrus. As
both the incrustation and the beadwork was inwere in
bad condition they [were] coated with melted paraffin wax to
consolidate them.

(AA) Lying over the front of the thighs was a collarette
formed of similar workmanships and segments as group
(I). This being also in fragile condition it was similarly
treated with wax.

(BB) A mesh of gold and other beads of various forms lying over
the pubis. These were so mixed up and their strings decayed,
for the moment it is not possible to recognize their significance,
with these beads were further portions of (O). To reconstruct
these obj bead-work objects will be a difficult, if not
impossible, task - not merely on account of them the
threads [which] have decayed, but also the jumbled manner in
which they occurred. They were treated with paraffin-
wax with the hope of preserving some kind of record of thei[r]
their order of threading.

(CC) Just below (BB) was a gold circlet corresponding to (U, B V, and

(DD) Resting on the front of the abdomen was a finely gold
inlaid filigree gold dagger. This lay in a diagonal
position, with the top towards: right and the bottom point to
the left. When removed this dagger proved of much heavier
and elaborate workmanship than the previous one discovered

(EE) A gold girdle of sheet gold, similar to (L), belonging
in probability belonging to the Dagger (DD). It was
fastened by a small golden pin. This girdle and its
dagger, were several layers of wrappings lower than the
former girdle & Dagger afore mentioned.

At this stage of the proceedings a set of photographic
records were taken to show the relative positions of the
these objects.

These objects being safely recorded and removed, a
further layers of wrappings over this part of the mummy
were removed, thus exposing:-

Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 69 (TAA i.2.3.69) Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 69 (TAA i.2.3.69)
Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 69 (© Griffith Institute, TAA i.2.3.69)

Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 71 (TAA i.2.3.71) Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 71 (TAA i.2.3.71)
Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 71 (© Griffith Institute, TAA i.2.3.71)

(FF) A group of five massive rings of various designs and
materials. Such They were lying in a small group on the
lower part of the left thorax, and probably belong thto that
hand. They are of very fine workmanship and are respectively
composed of lapis lazuli coloured (?) faience, gold, translucent
green chalcedony and milky coloured chalcedony. Their
designs were of double cartouches, solar bark, and scarab
type. /

(GG.) An amuletic chased sheet gold collarette lying over
the upper part of the chest, under (Z)./

(HH) Lying just below the collarette (gg) was a group of three
amuletic bracelets bearing amulets of obscure meaning.
With them was a portion of a bead necklace, the remainder of
which has not been uncovered. /

(JJ) Lying about the centre of the thighs was a group of four
gold inlaid circlets similar to those already recorded.

(KK) (See HHH) Under sheet gold amulets not yet clear, they
being hidden by the mask collarette, a number of large amulets of
various materials became visible. They appear at present to be attached to something round the throat.

Objects already recorded by photography were then
removed, photos were made of the remainder which
in time were also removed.

This enabled the body to be bared down to the skin, from
the top of the abdomen to the feet. The feet were fitted
with gold sandals (LL), the toes with gold stalls, upon
the right ankle was a gold wire circlet (MM).


Between the shin bones near towards the ankles was
a small amulet of gold, beads, and (?) hair.

the uncovering of this When this portion of the
remains of the King were uncovered, i.e. his legs, ipubis
and abdomen, it was manifest that we were dealing with
the mortal remains of a young person. And a more
detailed medical examination to follow will determine with
certainty his exact age. /

Throughout these proceedings the wrappings, though much rotted
and carbonized, showed evidence of having once been of
fine cambric like quality. Again, whenever it was
possible, to discern details of method of wrappings, the
evidence was suggestive of hastiness - accoring to that was
the consensus of opinion among of the scientific element present.


So as to complete this stage of examination the
afternoon was devoted to uncovering the right arm and
hand which was flexed across the abdomen, with the result
that the forearm was found to be encircled with five
magnificent bracelets, which taken the in order of sequence
of discovery received the following lettering - (OO, PP, QQ, RR,


and SS.). In this particular group the bracelet (X)
must be included. Upon the fingers of this hand were
gold finger-stalls. The details of these bracelets are
somewhat intricate, and will be described more fully
in due course.

(TT) Lying over the upper wrappings of the left arm, and
reaching down to the forearm, was a sheet gold amuletic

As the light was insufficient for the necessary
photographic records to be taken, the work for the day was
discontinued. At 3.30 we returned home.

(It should be noted that the letters ii have been omitted).

Near the flesh of the King the wrappings were nothing
more than charred powder.

Certain visitors present handy like delays
Such as taking records during the operation.

Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 73 (TAA i.2.3.73) Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 73 (TAA i.2.3.73)
Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 73 (© Griffith Institute, TAA i.2.3.73)

Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 75 (TAA i.2.3.75) Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 75 (TAA i.2.3.75)
Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 75 (© Griffith Institute, TAA i.2.3.75)

M. Lacau & the three Inspectors were present today.

The first part of the morning was occupied by Mr Burton
taking a series of photographic records of the exposed parts of the
King's body, both in general and in detail.

(UU) While clearing away debris from the left side of the body, among
this was found a small finely carved carnelian Sa3 bird, beside
the trochanter which in sequence of discovery took the letter (UU). /

The lower limb and body having been thoroughly cleaned,
Drs Derry and Saleh Bey proceeded to take as many measurement[s]
as it was possible at this stage, and on account of its fragile
condition the whole of the exposed parts were saturated with hot

Following this the last portions of the wrappings were removed
from the left arm left-forearm and hand exposing another important
group of bracelets and as well as a group of finger-rings. These were: -

(VV) A group of eight finger rings, lying over the left wrist though
not attached. These finger-rings were of massive gold, black
resin, some having scarab bezels and others the prenomen and
nomen of the King - they will be described in detail later.

Upon the left forearm five bracelets: -

(WW) Massive gold bracelet just below elbow.

(XX) Elaborate bracelet of gold, amethyst and faience beads, around
forearm next to (WW). /

(YY) Intricate scarab and uraeus bracelet beside (XX).

(ZZ) Gold bracelet with inlaid sacred eye as centre piece, next
to (YY).

(AAA) Bracelet consisting of carnelian uazet-eye near to the wrist.

Scale photos were then taken.

During the afternoon the above objects were removed, and
the right forearm and hand braced - and further exanatomical
examination was made.

The soft tissues of the body were found to be all in a very
brittle and carbonized condition.

Further than the above discoveries there is little to add today,
owing to the greater part of the day being occupied in making
archaeological, anatomical and photographic notes.

Though we have only reached as far as the forearms of
the young King, the upper portion and head having yet to be
examined, 52 groups of objects - personal & religious jewellery -
have been discovered, all of which are of the finest workmanship
and their exact positions recorded. If therefore the upper parts and
the head are equally proportionally rich, we can begin to
realize the mass of wealth that and profusion that adorned
with which it seems to have been customary to adorn the
remains of these ancient Pharaohs buried in this Royal

We have been today besieged with numerous press agents.

Nov. 14. 1925.

In all the material we have just seen we have a good vivid clear
insight of the work of the skilled craftsmen of Thebes. The
court artisans were naturally picked men, and in this
last discovery we can discern the refinement of their art.
I say refinement, for the technique in many ways
is perhaps not so fine as regards finish as that of the
Middle Kingdom jewellers, but if the technical skill be
not so good, the refined taste displayed surpasses our
expectations. It would tax our gold-smiths of today
to surpass such refinement as is found in these Royal

Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 77 (TAA i.2.3.77) Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 77 (TAA i.2.3.77)
Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 77 (© Griffith Institute, TAA i.2.3.77)

Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 79 (TAA i.2.3.79) Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 79 (TAA i.2.3.79)
Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 79 (© Griffith Institute, TAA i.2.3.79)


Of yesterday's proceedings I omitted to mention that
on the second and third finger respectively of the left hand there
were found two rings: BBB. On third digit - a ring with
solar barque device for bezel; CCC. On the second digit
solid gold ring having on its bezel a figure of the King

M. Lacau and the two Doctors together with the Inspectors
arrived at Valley 8.30am, when we recommenced
work. After slight amount of cleaning two further objects
were disclosed, namely: a gold wire armlet with small amulets
attached near the elbow of the left arm from which possibly


fell the object (UU) discovered the day before; Next to this
armlet and a little higher up upon the arm was an
elaborate bead bracelet having circular centre piece
of filigree work, the bead band to which it was attached
having the usual gold 'dividers'. This in sequence


took the letter (DDD). Unfortunately due to the mass
of debris of bandage around this part of the limb and to
its powdery condition it was impossible to secure any
reliable photographic record, the bead work of the
bracelet having completely collapsed. Thus their
different parts were remove extricated from the debris.
As the decomposed wrappings below the body were gradually
removed the following named objects were exposed:-


(EEE) From the centre of the shins to the point below
the pubis lying on bottom of the Coffin longitudinally,
and adhering to it, was a complete (Qebset) Bull's tail,
composed of wood, gold tubular beads, and small faience
beadwork which covered had a core of (?) hair. This

(I and AA)

had to be consolidated with paraffin wax. Lying over
the tail end of this object was a wire with tag belonging
to one of the collarettes in groups (I and AA).

The lower part of the body and limbs having been
completely bared and thoroughly examined, as well as
photographic records taken, we were able to proceed e
proceed with the examination uncovering of the upper
part of the trunk of body as far as the shoulders.

In so doing the following interesting amulets and other
objects were gradually revealed, layer by layer - the
reader will note that the first uppermost layer were already
taken away by us at the beginning of the examination -
namely letters: E. F. G and H., also T, therefore these following
results begin at the sixth layer of wrappings and amulets:

In-line image from the manuscript

First the sixth layer comprised comprised: On breast:
on P


A red jasper (tt) = thet) amulet attached by gold wire
around neck. This was on right side of chest.

In-line image from the manuscript

A green uaz sceptre amulet, attached by gold wire to neck.
This was on the centre of chest.


Inlaid dd amulet of various materials, attached to neck
by gold wire, lying on left side of chest.

(See KK) Nov. 12.)

- A g A solid gold dd amulet, attached to neck to
gold wire, lying on centre of the chest.


The seventh layer immediately below (FFF - KK) a gold
amulet of doubtful significance, was lying on the right
side of chest.


A similar amulet to (iii) on left side of chest. /

Between these last two amulets was a d serpent, all
these being attached to the same string which had
decayed, therefore with d serpent iii and jjj make
one group. /

These objects amulets having been photographed were
removed together with collarette (gg) heretofore mentioned. /

Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 81 (TAA i.2.3.81) Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 81 (TAA i.2.3.81)
Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 81 (© Griffith Institute, TAA i.2.3.81)

Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 83 (TAA i.2.3.83) Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 83 (TAA i.2.3.83)
Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 83 (© Griffith Institute, TAA i.2.3.83)

Mingled with these last g mentioned groups of objects were
small and decayed fragments of papyrus bearing
a ritual written in linear hieros in white paint.
This ritual owing to its was so disintegrated into minute
fragments, some of which mere powder, all of which were much of it entirely
perished, only a few letters of the text were discernible - these
gave names of gods such as Isis and Osiris, and for that
reason it is not improbable that it below pertained to the
amulets named above.


An amulet similar and p and pendent to (TT) was
formed the 8th layer. It lay in corresponding position to
(TT) and right side (and no doubt TT was of same layer). /


An enormous chased sheet gold amuletic Buto, covering
the whole of the front of the chest, its wings enveloping the
shoulders, formed the 9th layer of objects. Its gold wire
attac and pendent tag attached in all probability or tied
lay rested under the small of the back. /


Con Immediately below (LLL) - i.e. the 10th layer - was a
Nekhbet vulture, of magnificent work, composed as follows:
number of gold cloisonnes inlaid with faience, attached
to one another by minute loops and faience beads. The
head, body, feathered legs and remiges tail-feathers are
of one piece, while the claws holding the shen- sign symbols
are of separate pieces. The primary, secondary and
tertiary flight feathers and also the wing-coverts are
formed of cloisonnes already described. This forms
a massive pectoral of Nekb the upp Goddess of
Upper Egypt.

This terminated the work of today.

The result of Drs. Derry and Saleh Bey's study
of the bony frame frame of the mummy, so far exposed,
has enabled them to give a definite pronouncement
as the to the g age of Tut.Ankh.Amen. This point
controversial question has now been settled and
his age definitely fixed between the limits of of 17 to
nineteen years of age. As soon as the upper parts
of the mummy are examined and even more
precise statement will be possible. Thus as we
have documentary evidence as late as referring to the sixth year
of the reign of Tutankhamen, discovered in the excavation a cachette
by the late Theo. M. Davis in the Valley of the Kings, the King
cannot have ascended to the throne later than his
thirteenth year - and from data yielded by the certain
discoveries in his tomb, he was then probably merely
co-regent and not sole monarch.

Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 85 (TAA i.2.3.85) Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 85 (TAA i.2.3.85)
Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 85 (© Griffith Institute, TAA i.2.3.85)

It is now five days since the examination of the
mummy was begun, and by this afternoon we have
reached only as far as the neck, having completed the
investigation from the feet thus far.

M. Lacau and the two Drs arrived 8.30am, when we
began again the examination, the actual proceedings
commencing by Burton taking photographic records of the
two last objects mentioned yesterday - (i.e. LLL and MMM.).


Below these objects were several layers of linen much
decomposed. This exposed an eleventh layer, comprising
one large pectoral in the form of Nekhbet and Buto a winged
(L) Nekhbet and ® Buto combined. This ornament
was formed of numerous sections cloisonnè sections encrusted
with - (?) coloured glass. Below this Underneath this pectoral
was a sheet of linen, cut in same and no doubt
doubt was sewn to it. This pectoral was sufficiently large
as to cover the chest, its flight passing the shoulders of the

Below this were alternate layers of crossed bandages
passing over the shoulders and of transverse bandages holding
them in place. Beneath these a sheet folded several
times, under which were simil similar crossed and transverse
bandages. / Then came a thick (3 cms.) a great thickness
(3 cmts.) of wrappings which came away in almost one
piece revealing a mass large group of objects forming the 12th - 16th
layers before reaching the actual body. These were
as follows:-


12th layer

(12th layer) lying (on chest) on top of group, a rectangular open-work
pectoral, having for device three scarabs supporting lunar
a solar and lunar discs, pendant hanging to this are four lotus
flowers, three lotus buds and six immature buds, all of
which are in the round and of similar gold encrusted work.
This depended, l as far as it is now possible to judge, from four
strings of gold, faience and carnelian beads, now lying in an
irregular mess upon the group.


A pectoral of very refined workmanship in gold and to numeru
minutely encrusted with lapis lazuli and carnelian, (?) and
in the form of a flying griffin vulture, from found fallen near left
shoulder, evidently was place originally placed above
the foregoing pectoral (OOO). This was also attached
to the King by means of bead string work not fully yet fully recognised.

13th Layer


A circular pectoral in form of winged lunar Kheper forming
the King's nomen, the principal of the device being a winged
human Kheper. This was on the left side of the chest and
was made of gold cloisonnes encrusted, depending from a gold

Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 87 (TAA i.2.3.87) Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 87 (TAA i.2.3.87)
Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 87 (© Griffith Institute, TAA i.2.3.87)

Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 89 (TAA i.2.3.89) Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 89 (TAA i.2.3.89)
Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 89 (© Griffith Institute, TAA i.2.3.89)

14th Layer


A blue faience pectoral in form of uazat-eye, uraeus
and Sa symbol; lying on the very upper part of the abdomen,
and depends from a string of cylindrical faience, granular gold bead
& plain gold cylindricalbeads.

15th Layer
(See 4e)


What now appears to be a girdle sort of girdle of In gold
and faience cylindrical & disk beads. This la hangs
slightly towards the right side of the chest, and continues
upwards towards the shoulders, the exact continuation is
clear at present, but appeared to be by means of string gold.

16th Layer


Below the whole group and at the lowest level before reaching
the skin, was a bib-like Collarette composed of fine
green faience & gold bead matting having a zigzag pattern,
having a border of gold sequins and drop-pendant margin.
This bib covers the whole of the upper part of the chest
as far as the clavicles. /

13th Layer


A pectoral, fallen in debris on the right side in debris of the chest,
in form of a hawk in heavy gold encrusted. This
appears to have been symmetrical with (QQQ) and
of the same layer. Attached originally by chain. /

13th Layer


A pectoral of gold encrusted, the device being wazet-eye
terminating uraeus having Osiris vulture behind. This was
attached by three l bead work strings - three on each
side. It was found below left shoulder, where it had obviously
fallen, and in all probability was central to pectorals
UUU and QQQ. Thus as far as it is able - one can
be judged the three pectorals QQQ, UUU, and V.V.V. VVV
formed one layer namely the 13th (and having below them
the faience uazet (RRR)). /

Below this group of 5 layers (12-16) was a very
thin layer of ban wrapping which actually cover the
body of the King, but the lower part of the girdle (SSS) and the Uazet (RRR)
were actual upon the flesh - though their the bare flesh of the king.


Fallen in rubbish but probably from right arm,
a small wire bracelet with bead, and (?) centre piece

Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 91 (TAA i.2.3.91) Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 91 (TAA i.2.3.91)
Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 91 (© Griffith Institute, TAA i.2.3.91)

Fixed around the neck of the King, by means of five gold
wires were the following five amulets:

(XXX) Anubis in green-felspar.
(YYY) Horus in lapis lazuli.
(ZZZ) Serpent head in carnelian.
(4A) Tehuti in green felspar.
(4B) Uaze in " "

Below this the neck, and mingled in the debris were
sundry objects:

(4C) Black resin bead with granular gold work attached. (4D) Three wire gold chains.

(see SSS)

Under the back of the mummy, across the scapulae,
a series of ornaments sections of (?) ornament lying
face downwards and in great part stuck fast to bottom
of coffin, being embedded in the pitch-like material.
Among those portions recognisable were: two abs,
a plaque comprising two Deds and a thet, two (?) Ba-
birds, and a large plaque of open work of the following
device: a central figure of eternity supported by Uraeus
bearing Red & White Crown, and on other margin the Reed of
'Millions of Years'. This device is surmounted by with the King's Cartouche.

This bein[g] These were all photographed, and thus this
the day was terminated.

All that remains to be done is the examination
of the head of the mummy, which we were obliged to leave
until the last due to its being completely covered by its golden
mask fast adhering to the coffin.

Nov. 15. 1925

The two doctors today have been able to definitely declare
the age of the young King to be about eighteen years: of age therefore
he was only 12 years old when he ascended the throne as Co-

Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 89 (TAA i.2.3.93) Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 93 (TAA i.2.3.93)
Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 93 (© Griffith Institute, TAA i.2.3.93)

The whole of today's work was concentrated upon the
head of the mummy.

It was found that the long back pendent appendages, which of
a diadem fixed around the head, where were thickly embedded in the pitch-like material at the bottom
of the coffin (below 4E). While clear freeing these gold
appendages it was noticed that the bib - bead-work bib (TTT)
also passed round to the back of the shoulders, and this also stuck
to the bottom of the Coffin. Again, embedded in the pitch-like
material, mingled with (4E), were two gold inlaid tags of collarettes.
These objects having been freed, our we
were able to direct our attention to the head & neck.

It was found that like the body of the King the back of
the head was stuck to (in this case) to the mask - so firmly
that it would require a hammer chisel to free it. Eventually
we used hot knives for the purpose with success.

On Certain loose objects around the neck and under
Collarette of mask, had to be removed before proceeding
further. It was unfortunately not possible to make obtain
photos of them in situ they being covered by the collarette of the mask. These objects were lying one above the other
the above e other around the neck was were as follows:-

Commencing from upper layer top downwards:

(4 FF F)

Human headed winged serpent of chased sheet gold, attached
to neck by means of cord.

(4 GG G) double uraeus of chased sheet gold attached to neck by
means of cord.

(4H) A Mût-vulture in chased sheet gold attached to neck
by means of cord

(4i) Two similar objects possibly on same cord.
These objects (4F-4i) were on right side of throat & faced
north - (i.e. to left).

(4j) On the left side of throat a similar vulture to those already
described, attached by cord & facing south. - (i.e. to right).

(4K) An Uraeus of similar type attached on left side of neck
facing north, also attached by cord.

(4L) On left side of throat a fifth vulture of chased sheet gold,
with head facing north - (all of which attached by cord).

Fallen under the neck towards left side were seven faience
round beads which may come from the cords of the above
amuletic figures of vultures and serpents. X
It is hoped that carefully collaboration will clear this point.

(4.M) At a lower level to the above objects, tied around the
neck, at the level of the thyroid cartilage, a dar neck
band of four string of beads, which only half encircled
the neck, owing perhaps to the thickness of the wrappings. The
strings of this neck band (at end of beads) were in all
probability plaited together and tied at the back of the throat.

These objects recorded and removed, it was possible
after the use applying of hot knives, to withdraw the head from
its mask. /

(4N) Some of the outer bandages of the crown top of the head,
remained adhering to the interior of the mask, thus
when it exposing a double rope-like 'lawaya' and encircling the crown of the head., made of a
(?) fibrous material tightly bound with string.
This had slipped down slightly during the
operation of withdrawing the head from mask. This peculiar
object has loops at the back for attachment and being
of very fragile nature it had was somewhat broken.

Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 95 (TAA i.2.3.95) Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 95 (TAA i.2.3.95)
Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 95 (© Griffith Institute, TAA i.2.3.95)

Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 97 (TAA i.2.3.97) Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 97 (TAA i.2.3.97)
Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 97 (© Griffith Institute, TAA i.2.3.97)

Over the left orbit, possibly originally attached to 4N,
though this is not clear, there were six dark blue faience

(4.O.) Beneath (4N) there were several layers of wrappings,
of coarse linen probably for protective reasons, which
when removed disclosed around the crown of the head
a magnificent diadem, in the form of a gold fillet
encrusted, having similar gold two back and two side
appendages. The side appendages have uraeii attached to them. /

(4P) Underneath more wrappings there was a thin
sheet gold forehead band. of a b??? This band extended
behind and above the ears, having slits at the extremities
for tape attachment tied at the back of the head.
On either side of the head were large pads protective wads of linen. /

(4Q) Under diadem (4.O.) and beneath several thicknesses
of wrappings was a (Buto) uraeus on centre of forehead,
with the d body & tail of several sections continuing over the axis
of the crown of the head, which was and sewn at the extreme
end to the wrapping - this sewing was in the margi vicinity of
the lambda portion

(4R) On the crown of the head and covering that portion of the
snake was a heavy sheet gold Nekhbet vulture,
her body being parallel with that of the snake, and
her open wings covering the crown of the head of the King.

On removing these last two objects it was found that
the head wrappings were tied at the back in the manner
of a chinon. X
Note linen headdress

(4S) Beneath more wrappings, a thin sheet gold band
exactly similar to (4P) and in similar position was tied beneath the occiput
by means of linen tape fastened by knot in centre - (see photo)

Sufficient of the head of the King was exposed today to show us
that Tut-ankh-Amen was of a type exceedingly refined and
cultured. The face has beautiful and well formed features.
The head shows strong structural resemblance to Akh-en-Aten,
suggesting the same affinity noticeable on the monuments. A
resemblance in character which makes one inclined to seek a
to find blood relationship - a kindred not all at all unlikely
at all unlikely. ? The medical examination should may tell us. a lot

Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 99 (TAA i.2.3.99) Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 99 (TAA i.2.3.99)
Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 99 (© Griffith Institute, TAA i.2.3.99)

No work

How greatly the dangers were feared for the dead is shown
by the profusion of amulets and sacred symbols placed on the
Mummy, which were intended to protect it against injury
on that journey in the under world. The quantity and quality
naturally depended on the position and wealth as well as affection
of the survivors of the deceased.

The actual meaning of many of these amulets and symbols
is not clear, nor do we know their exact nomenclature, however,
whoever wears the ded symbol may enter into the
realms of the dead, eat the food of Osiris, and be justified.
He on whom the thet symbol is hung will be guarded by
Isis and Horus, and be welcomed with joy. In other words
both secure protection and welcome into the Kingdom of
Osiris. The eye, an amulet which occurs frequently, has
obscure meaning; it can be the eye of Horus, the model
of all good gifts. The serpent head may serve to frighten away
obnoxious reptiles. These magic spells had to be uttered in
solemn voice.

It will be seen that for the sake of greater security the representation
amulets of certain divinites are often combined, especially those of
Nekhbet and Buto, and probably thus more effective.

The Knot, the stone and gold finger-rings, especially when
threaded upon flaxen thre[ads] cords, as they may have been in this
case, may be described as special amulets, but what the
powers ascribed to them were is not known, but they were placed
there for the betterment of the dead and were made as dainty and
costly as possible.

Upon the head was laid placed a sort of skull cap of fine linen a design and worked upon a a design of curve
serpent pattern, this was prop supposed to secure for the dead one a sight of the

(4T) This actual skull-cap ll of the thinnest linen cambric fabric
having device of four uraeii of fine bead-work meta[l] worked with
very fine faience and gold beads, the centres of the hood of the
cobras bearing small cartouches, takes in order sequence the
letter 4.T., and fits closely to the crown of the head. As it would
have been practically impossible to remove this device owing to
its fragile nature & minuteness of work, it was consolidated
with paraffin wax and left in place.

(4U) Upon the top of the head of the King, was an enormous pad
some … centimetres in height, of linen wads and wra bandages
wrapped in the manner of a modern surgical head bandage.
This was of a conical form and in its shape was suggestive
of a crown. The linen was in this case in far better preservation
than any hitherto found upon the mummy. Its purpose is
obscure, though possibly it either represented the form of
the crown of Osiris (the mummy being necessarily made in
his semblance), or was merely a pad intended to fill
up the space of empty space that otherwise would
have been left empty in hollow of the headdress of the
mask. The former explanation seems for the moment to be


the more probable. Besides a small amuletic head-
rest (4.V.), found beneath the above mentioned head placed pad
this completed the total ornaments found upon the Royal Mummy.

After photographic records are made of the King's remains,
these will be reverently re-wrapped and returned to the

M. Lacau, who was present during the whole of this
examination, left today for Cairo, taking with him
a final bulletin archaeological bulletin as well as
that of the two Doctors. Derry and Saleh Bey.

As will be seen from the above lettering of the
various discoveries made there were 97 separate
groups of objects within the wrappings of the mummy.
Some of these groups included many individual objects.

Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 101 (TAA i.2.3.101) Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 101 (TAA i.2.3.101)
Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 101 (© Griffith Institute, TAA i.2.3.101)

Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 103 (TAA i.2.3.103) Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 103 (TAA i.2.3.103)
Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 103 (© Griffith Institute, TAA i.2.3.103)

Final measurements were taken of the head of the King,
some photos of certain bones, and thus the examination
was completed.

Saleh Bey & Derry left after lunch.

Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 105 (TAA i.2.3.105) Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 105 (TAA i.2.3.105)
Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 105 (© Griffith Institute, TAA i.2.3.105)

The whole of today was occupied in cleaning and
restoring the gold Coffin No. 155.

Spent on cleaning & restoring objects found upon the
Mummy. As well as the lid of the third Coffin which is now

No work being market day - H.R. Hall came.

Hall left. Cleaning & repairing the objects found continued.

Have been spent upon cleaning and restoring objects
discovered upon the King's mummy. I do not think we
have succeeded up to date in doing more than 1/4 of the material.
It was a terrible job extricating the third innermost Coffin of gold
from the interior of the inlaid wooden Second Coffin, where it was
firmly fixed by the congealed anointing substance. Originally
something like two buckets full of the liquid had been poured
over the third coffin. The main part of which has flowed between
and filled up the space between the two coffins, where it dried
and became a solid mass. In the same manner the mask
of the King was stuck to the interior of the third innermost Coffin.

It was found that this pitch-like material could be melted
under great heat, and that was really the only means of
successfully getting the coffins and mask apart. Thus, so as
to apply sufficient heat as was necessary without causing
damage to those wonderful specimens of ancient Egyptian
arts & crafts, the third coffin was completely lined with plates
of zinc which would not melt under a temperature of
500 centigrade. We then reversed the coffins by
turning them upside down upon trestles, covered the outside
(second) coffin with heavy wet blankets for protection
against fire, and placed under the hollow of the third
coffin primus paraffin lamps burning at full blast.
The temperature was naturally carefully watched so that
it did not exceed the melting point of the zinc plates.
It took some three hours before any real effect in
the way of movement took place. The moment signs
of movement became apparent, the lamps were turned
out and the coffins left suspended upon the trestles
when after an hour they began slowly to fall apart -
the movement at first almost imperceptible owing to the
tenacity of the material which when heated was of an
exceedingly plastic nature and of the consistency of
thick treacle, which even when the coffins came apart
was very difficult to remove - even with quantities of
various solvents - among which the final cleaning was
done by means of acetone.

The Mask was also a difficult undertaking - the inlay had
become unstuck from the heat applied to free it from the Coffin.
It took many days for final cleaning and I am still replacing
the numerous pieces of glass and stone inlay that came

Extricating numbers of small beads and parts of objects
that had were embedded in the pitch-like material collected
under the mummy was also a very tiresome and long
job - this, I am glad to say, is mostly finished and next
week we shall be able to commence upon the more
genial work of piecing the various specimens together and
thus as time allows complete them.

Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 107 (TAA i.2.3.107) Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 107 (TAA i.2.3.107)
Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 107 (© Griffith Institute, TAA i.2.3.107)

Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 109 (TAA i.2.3.109) Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 109 (TAA i.2.3.109)
Howard Carter's Journal for 1925, p. 109 (© Griffith Institute, TAA i.2.3.109)

Completed the gold coffin 255 and gold mask 256a.

Left for Cairo with Lucas with 3 cases containing
the Coffin 255 and Mask 256a. And handed them over to the Museum.

Returned Luxor - Gurna - from Cairo.

Was spent in cleaning,
restoring and recording the objects found upon the
King's Mummy. These, with few exceptions, were
completed, and by the 6th May were packed
ready for shi transport to Cairo.

Howard Carter's Journal for 1926, p. 111 (TAA i.2.3.111) Howard Carter's Journal for 1926, p. 111 (TAA i.2.3.111)
Howard Carter's Journal for 1926, p. 111 (© Griffith Institute, TAA i.2.3.111)

Handed the cases over to Tewfik Effendi.

Left for Cairo.

Unpacked objects in Cairo Museum.

Left for Alexandria where I saw
Saleh Bey Hamdi.

Left for England by S.S. Vienna, via
Venice - Paris London (Arr. May 28.)

Black Shrine shaped boxes containing nome standards. Antechamber No. 37, 38.

Note May, 1926. In the hills behind my house
at Elwat e'diban, Western Thebes, I saw a pair
of jackals about 6pm making their way towards
the cultivated land. They probably had cubs in the
hills as otherwise it was early for them to descend to
inhabited and cultivated quarters. But the great
interest was, while one of them was of normal size
and colouring, the other - I was unable to tell
whether dog or bitch, as they did not approach nearer
than 250yds - was totally black, much taller
and attenuated, resembling, though tail not quite
so bushy, the type inpw as found upon the monuments.
This is the first example of that colouring and of that kind
of jackal I have seen in Egypt for over 35 years
experience in the desert, and it suggested to me, unless
the black jackal is known, a spot of the old and
original Egyptian jackal only now know to us
as Anubis.

In-line image from the manuscript is what it appeared like through my
Zeiss glasses, while the other was a much
stouter & smaller animal of normal colouring -
a grisly grey brown.

(p 19)